Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Philosophy of Education

1.1. Teacher Centered

1.2. Student Centered

1.3. http://education.cu-portland.edu/blog/classroom-resources/which-is-best-teacher-centered-or-student-centered-education/

1.4. Idealist: Teacher is a role model in a classroom. Study the great works, study history, a basic core foundation.

1.5. Perennialism: Focus on classic ideas, development of reason and moral qualities, teacher sets curriculum, emphasis on learning for learnings sake.

1.6. Essentialism: Emphasis on academics, promotion is based on mastery of subject, curriculum is based on basic subjects, teaching across the curriculum, curriculum is determined by administrators.

1.7. Realism: The material world is real, the real world exists before ideas exists, Aristotle develops a sense of logical thinking. Understand the real world then apply science and logic to problems.

1.8. Progressivism: Education is based on needs and interests of students, students learn by doing as well as by textbooks, teaching through field trips and games, emphasis on natural and social sciences, experiential learning, grouping by interest and abilities.

1.9. Pragmatism: Learning through experiences, what is practical, approach to learning is through scientific inquiry.

1.10. Existentialism & Phenomenology: Existence precedes essence, we are as we are because of the decisions we make, the focus is on the individual, cognitively and effectively.

1.11. Post Modernists and critical theory: The Goal of Education is to explore differences and to explore possibilities that may seem inherently impossible.

2. Politics of Education

2.1. Charles Darwin- William Graham Sumner- only the strongest survive. Humans adapt to changes in the environment. From this point of view, humans must compete in the social environment to survive.

2.2. Our progress as humans depends on our drive and initiative. Individual initiative. The individual can solve his or her own problems.

2.3. Free market capitalism gives room for optimal maximization of economic growth and individual liberty with competition.

2.4. Individuals make choices on a cost benefit scale. Solutions to problems are based on the individual and at their level.

2.5. Reagan was credited with restoring the U.S.'s economic growth from 1980-1988.

2.6. Tend to view schools as necessary to the transmission of the traditional values of U.S. society, such as hard work, family, unity, and individual initiative.

2.7. Traditionalists believe to pass on the best of what was and what is.

2.8. The conservative perspective believes that schools should ensure that all students have the opportunity to complete individually in the educational marketplace.

3. Educational Reform

3.1. The rise of the common school. Horace Mann lobbied to create the first state board of education. Created in Mass. (1837).

3.2. Jefferson supported public education to further success of the U.S.

3.3. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) was a U.S. Act of Congress which reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act; it included Title I provisions applying to disadvantaged students.

3.4. Education reform is the name given to the goal of changing public education. Historically, reforms have taken different forms because the motivations of reformers have differed.

3.5. Public education was for public stability and mobility

3.6. First board of education was created in Mass.

3.7. Normal schools were created for teacher education.

4. Schools and Organizations

4.1. The U.S. Constitution does not provide for education for the states. The states are responsible for education. The Dept. of Edu. has very little power.

4.2. 53.5% are white, 16 states have less then 50% white, ten states have no minorities, large states are heavily multiracial.

4.3. Private schools make up 25% of all schools.

4.4. Schools have definitive populations, they have political structures, the represent a multitude of social groups, they have their own special culture.

4.5. Teachers have had to develop all kinds of interpersonal skills. More of an artist than a technical teacher.

4.6. Most effective feedback is from students. Exercise control. Must have control to be an effective learning environment.

5. Equality of Opportunity

5.1. Caste- a person's social level is determined by race or religion.

5.2. Estate- a person's social level is determined by family value and worth.

5.3. Class systems- a person's worth is determined by their ability to overcome personal achievement.

5.4. Educational achievement is directly related to family achievement and social class.

5.5. Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance.

5.6. Gender education: disparities still exist to this day. Title 9.

5.7. SAT and ACT have become the determining factor for educational success.

5.8. PL 94-142 or the EHA Education of the Handicapped 1975. IDEA 1976. REI (mainstreaming)

5.9. Does where you live determine your educational success? to some extent, yes.

5.10. Coleman Study 1966- School organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools. Private school outperform public schools.

6. History of U.S. Education

6.1. Massachusetts School Law (1647)- Established public schooling. Old Deluder Satan Law (1647)

6.2. Grammar schools became preset day elementary schools. Dame schools were created for girls. Secondary schools were for boys and the elite. Latin grammar schools were in Boston. Education in the South was for the upper class (plantation owners).

6.3. Morrill Act established land grants in each country and state for public education.

6.4. First university to allow women was University of Iowa in 1856.

6.5. Industrial Revolution period- the gap between rich and poor widened. Cities contained large amounts of poor people. John Dewey, the father of modern education, emphasized the needs of the individual to create a better society. Schools were focal point of social problems.

6.6. Progressive Movement- John Dewey. Curriculum supports the needs of the child and supports the betterment of society. Dewey's philosophy is the reason we have vocational schools.

6.7. The Committee of Ten was created by the National Education Association which was chaired by Harvard University president, Charles Elliott. Health, vocation, citizenship, ethical character, worth use of leisure, worthy of home membership, command of fundamental processes. Est. units for college entrance and graduation.

6.8. Four Themes: Tension between classical subjects (Latin and GReek vs. Science and Math). College entrance requirements. High school students should be prepared for life and not college. All students should follow the same courses of study regardless of the need for further education. The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education.

6.9. Progressive v. Traditional- Post WWI required more technical innovations. The college student movement for civil rights. Impact G.I. bill had on education.

6.10. Plessy vs. Ferguson in 1896- Public facilities could separate races but had to have equal facilities. Brown vs. Board of Education in 1954- Desegregation. Schools and colleges opened the doors for all students. Civil Rights Act in 1963.

6.11. Reforms of Standard Era 1980's- Space Race (math and science emphasis). Emphasis on excellence from 1957-1960's. Mid 60's the emphasis went back to the individual. Elementary/Secondary Education Act 1965 provided for special needs students.

6.12. Nation at Risk (Reagan) Goals (Clinton) NCLB (Bush) RTT (Obama)

6.13. 3 Historical Perspectives of U.S. Education- Democratic- Liberal School. Radical- Revisionist School. Conservative School

6.14. FAPE- Free and Public Education

6.15. One reform movement that I think is most important is the Nation at Risk report.

6.16. One historical impact that I feel like is most important to me

7. Education Inequality

7.1. Functinlaists- each students success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed.

7.2. Conflict- support the idea that student success is affected by their environment.

7.3. Interactionalist- students success is determined by family, social class, schools, and environment.

7.4. Student centered factors and school centered factors are also related to student success.

7.5. Do schools reproduce inequality? Yes

7.6. Community, culture, teachers affect student success.

8. Sociological Perspectives

8.1. Sociology is how social aspirations and fears force people to ask questions about the societies and culture in which they live.

8.2. Societal, Institutional, Interpersonal, Intrapsychic

8.3. The big question: How does teacher interaction with students relate to student success? Teachers can help students succeed.

8.4. Highly effective schools: strong leadership, strong and orderly environment, instructional activities that focus on student achievement, teacher believe that all students can learn, and contant review of student progress.

8.5. Where you go to school can determine your success more than achievement. Cultural capital.

8.6. Effects of schooling on individuals: People learn, income, mobility, employment, knowledge and attitudes, inside the schools.

8.7. Curriculum is important in the school setting.

8.8. De Facto Segregation: people segregate themselves into their comfort zones, racial integration benefits minorities more than the majority. Integration does not seem to harm the majority.

8.9. Gender biases: men are still paid more for equivalent jobs, academics are leveling between the sexes, schools are still perpetuating inequalities.

9. Curriculum and Pedagogy

9.1. Conservatist of the 80's and 90's say that we should teach what is fundamentally basic to a common culture.

9.2. Political influences of the curriculum have determined battle lines for domination of what should be taught.

9.3. Evolutionists, creationists, science and math, Nation at Risk, NCLB, RTT are primary factors in curriculum.

9.4. Informal curriculum (character ed) taught but not obvious to sight.

9.5. Null curriculum what is taught but is not learned (values of the the community).

9.6. Conservatists argue that multicultural curriculum had diluted western civilizational values. They say we have melted and lost our western cultural identity.

9.7. Students are tracked through vocational diplomas or advanced diplomas.

9.8. Effective schooling characteristics pg. 301.

9.9. Educational gap between what we know and what students are learning.

9.10. Chronological maturity, social maturity, emotional maturity, culturally, valued, political maturity.