Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Philosophy of Education

1.1. Teacher Centered

1.2. Student Centered

1.3. Love Centered

1.4. Realism: the material world is real. It exists without anyone perceiving.

1.4.1. Realist: Thomas Aquinas, Francis Bacon, John Locke

1.5. Goal of Education: Understand the real world then apply science and logic to solve problems.

1.6. Pragmatism: John Dewey, William James, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau

1.6.1. "What is practical has meaning and value."

1.7. Existentialism & Phenomenology: We are who are as a result of our decisions

1.7.1. Students must become wide awake.

1.8. Neo-Marxism: The purpose of education in a capitalist society is to perpetuate the ideology of the dominant class.

1.9. Post Modernists and Critical Theory: The goal of Educations is to explore differences and to explore possibilities that may seem inherently impossible.

1.10. Progressivism: Students Centered.

1.10.1. The students learn by doing as well as through textbooks.

1.10.2. Teaching through field trips and games

1.10.3. Experimental learning

1.10.4. Grouping by interests and abilities.

1.10.5. Emphasis on natural and social sciences

2. Politics of Education

2.1. The purpose of education, in general, and schooling, in particular, are concerned with the type of society people wish to live in and the type of people we wish to live in it.

2.2. Through the conservative view points, solutions to problems should also be addressed at the individuals level.

2.3. Traditional visions tned to view the schools as necessary to the transmission of the traditional values of U.S society, such as hard work, family unity, individual initiative, and so on.

2.4. Traditonalists believe the schools should pass on the best of what was and what is.

2.5. The conservative perspective sees the role of the school as providing the necessary educational training to ensure that the most talented and hard working individuals receive the tools necessary to maximize economic and social productivity.

2.6. The conservative perspective believes that schools should ensure that all students have the opportunity to compete individually in the educational marketplace.

3. Educational Reform and School Improvement

3.1. The Rise of Common School

3.2. The right to vote was restricted to all men except slaves and emotionally disturbed.

3.3. Horace Mann lobbied to create the first state board of education.

3.4. Public Education was for public stability and social mobility.

3.5. The first public university to admit women to the University of Iowa in 1856.

3.6. John Dewey, the father of modern education, emphasized the needs of individual to create a better society.

4. History of US Education

4.1. Education for All: The Emergence of the Public High School- prior to 1875, fewer than 25,000 students were enrolled in public high schools.

4.2. in examining the evolution of the high school, what becomes immediately apparent is that the tension in society over the meaning and purpose of education- a debate that began with the ideas of Jefferson and Franklin, that was augmented by the arguments of Horace Mann, and that was made even more complex with the ideas of progressive educators.

4.3. Essentially the Cardinal Principles, or the main goals of the secondary education were: 1. Health 2. Command of fundamental processes 3. Worthy home- membership 4. Vocation 5. Citizenship 6. Worthy use of leisure 7. Ethical character

4.4. The History of U.S. education has involved a number of related patterns.

4.5. The History of U.S. education has been defined by the expansion of schooling to increasingly larger numbers of children for longer periods of time.

4.6. The GI Bill of Rights offered 16 million servicemen and women the opportunity to pursue higher education.

4.7. The Old Deluder Law 1647

4.8. Massachusetts School Law 1647

4.9. The Dilemma

4.9.1. 1. Tension between classical subjects such as Latin and Greek verses science and math, etc.

4.9.2. 2. College entrance requirements due to so many disparities in entrance requirements.

4.9.3. 3. High School students should be prepared for life not college.

4.9.4. 4. All students should follow the same courses of study regardless of need for further education.

4.9.5. 5. The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education

4.10. Plessy V Ferguson of 1896 Could separate races, but equal facilities.

4.11. Brown V Board of Education 1954

4.12. Elementary/Secondary Education Act 1965 provided for special needs students.

5. Equality of Opportunity

5.1. Americans believe that hard work, thrift and a bit of luck should determine who gets ahead.

5.2. Calculating Educational and Life Outcomes

5.2.1. Social stratification is a structural characteristics of society

5.2.2. Human differences do not cause social stratification.

5.3. Social Stratification- three systems

5.3.1. Caste- a persons social level is determined by race or religion.

5.3.2. Estate systems- a persons social level is determined by family value and worth.

5.3.3. Class systems- a persons worth by personal achievement

5.4. The lower classes in America have had their ability to overcome decreased because of inflation.

5.5. Educational achievement is directly related to family achievement and social class.

5.6. Educational achievement is directly related to financial success.

5.7. Schools represent the middle and upper class.

5.8. Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance.

5.9. Students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains educational opportunities due to PL 94-142 or the EHA. Education of Handicapped 1975.

5.10. IDEA 1996

5.11. REI- Regular Educational Initiative or mainstreaming.

5.12. The Coleman Study 1966

5.12.1. Coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools.

5.12.2. As a s result lower class students should attend schools with lower and middle class students.

5.12.3. Private school students outperform public school students.

5.12.4. Differences in schools do not make a difference.

5.12.5. The difference is in how much more demanding the school is.

5.13. School Segregation

5.13.1. Despite decreases in segregation, racial, and ethnic segregation is increasing.

6. Education Inequality

6.1. Functional Theorists support the idea that each students success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed.

6.2. Conflict Theorists support the idea that student success is affected by their environment.

6.3. Internationalists Theorists support that student success is determined by a combination of factors such as family, social class schools and environment.

6.4. Other factors that influence student success are:

6.4.1. Student centered factors such as family, peer group, community, culture and the student.

6.4.2. School- centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate and teacher expectations.

6.5. The Big Question?

6.5.1. Do schools Reproduce Inequality?

7. Sociological Perspectives

7.1. Functional Theories: Functional sociologists begin with a picture of society that stresses the interdependence of the social system.

7.2. Conflict Theory: Conflict Sociologists do not see the relation between school and society as unproblematic or straightforward.

7.3. Interactional Theories: are primarily critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict perspectives.

7.4. Knowledge and Attitude: research shows that differences between schools in terms of their academic programs and policies do make a difference in student learning.

7.5. Employement: research shows that large organizations, such as corporations, require high levels of education for white- collar, managerial, or administrative jobs.

7.6. Mobility: for some groups, such as the middle class, increased education, may be directly linked to upward occupational mobility; for the poor and the rich, education may have little to do with mobility.

7.7. The Big Question

7.7.1. 1. Can schools create a more functional and equitable society?

7.7.2. 2. What is the relationship between schools and society?

7.7.3. 3. How does teacher interaction with students determine student success?

7.8. Highly Effective School Characteristics

7.8.1. 1. Strong leadership

7.8.2. 2. Safe environment

7.8.3. 3. Instruction that focus on student achievement

7.8.4. 4. Teachers believe that all students can learn

7.8.5. 5. Constant review of student progress

7.9. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

7.9.1. Income

7.9.2. Mobility

7.9.3. Job performance

7.9.4. People Learn

7.9.5. Employment

8. Schools as Organizations

8.1. The US Constitution does not provide for education.

8.2. Student Composition in Public Schools

8.2.1. 53.5% are white

8.2.2. Of the state, 16 have less than 50% white

8.2.3. Ten states have no minorities

8.2.4. Large states are heavily multiracial

8.2.5. New York City is 85.6%

8.3. Degree of Openness

8.3.1. Very few academic impediments exist to graduate high school but many social impediments exists

8.3.2. Very democratic process of education

8.3.3. Open to all and very inclusive

8.4. Most effective feedback is from students.

8.5. International Comparisons

8.5.1. In other countries individuals go through rigorous academic rites of passage. This design separates those that can and those that cannot as well as those that have and those that have not.

8.6. Schools, Processes and Cultures

8.6.1. Schools are separate social organizations because: They have definitive populations They have political structures They represent a multitude of social groups They have their own special culture They are prevailed by the "we feeling"

8.7. The nature of teaching requires many hats and is very demanding as a results.

8.8. Control precedes teaching. A classroom must have control to be an effective learning environment.

8.9. Stakeholders in my district

8.9.1. State Senators: Richard Shelby, Jeff Sessions

8.9.2. House of Representative: Bradley Byron, Mike Rogers, Robert Aderholt

8.9.3. State Superintendent: Tommy Vice

8.9.4. Local Superintendent: Brandon Payne

8.9.5. Local School Board: Wendy Crider, Gene Sullins, Chris Carter, Kenny Brockman and a few others

9. Curriculum and Pedagogy

9.1. Social Influences

9.2. Political Influences

9.3. Societies Influences

9.4. Cultural Influences

9.5. Special Interests

9.6. Conservatist of the 1980s and 1990s say we should teach what is fundamentally basic to a common culture. P282

9.7. Different needs for different people was their concern for curriculum

9.8. Social melodist's- reform society through schools also known as social reconstruction

9.9. Political Influences of the curriculum have determine and set battle lines for domination of what should be taught.

9.10. Private schools are gaining popularity because parents choose school that support their beliefs

9.11. Other Influences on the Curriculum

9.11.1. Evolutionists

9.11.2. Creationists

9.11.3. Science and Math

9.11.4. Nation at Risk

9.11.5. NCLB

9.11.6. RTT

9.12. Effects of the Curriculum

9.12.1. Do students actually learn what is taught?

9.12.2. What is learned and what is taught may have a large gap between them.

9.13. Schooling does have an impact on learning.