Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Philosophy of Education

1.1. Student Centered

1.1.1. Progressivism

1.1.1.1. Progressivists believe that education should focus on the whole child, rather than on the content or the teacher. This educational philosopy stresses that students should test ideas by active experiementation. Learning is rooted in the questions of learners that arise through experiencing the world.

1.1.1.2. I believe that students learn better when they are working in groups rather than me just standing up there lecturing the whole day.

1.1.1.3. Project based learning

1.1.1.4. teacher assisting students

1.1.1.5. develops problems solving and decisions making skills

1.2. Teacher Centered

1.2.1. Essentialism

1.2.2. adm. driven curriculum

1.3. Love Centered

1.4. pragmatic

1.4.1. students needs

1.4.2. social reconstructivist

1.4.3. meets the needs of society

1.5. Perenialist

1.5.1. self- promoting

1.5.1.1. individuals make the difference

1.6. Idealism

1.6.1. Socrates

1.7. Realsim

1.7.1. Aristotle

2. Politics of Education

2.1. Conservative

2.1.1. human progress is dependent on individual initiative and drive.

2.1.2. you only get back the amount of what you put in

2.2. Equality of Education

2.3. Equity for all

2.3.1. I believe that everyone deserves an equal educational experience

3. Educational Reform

3.1. The Struggle for free public education was led by Horace Mann of Massachusetts.

3.1.1. Mann lobbied to create the first state board of education.

3.1.1.1. The first board of education was created in Massachusetts in 1837

3.2. Jefferson supported public education to further the success of the U.S.

3.2.1. Public education was for public stability and social mobility.

3.2.2. Normal schools were created for teacher education.

3.3. Reforms of the Standard Era 1980s to present day.

3.3.1. Sputnik and the Space race influence

3.3.2. 1957-1960 emphasis on excellence

3.3.3. mid 1960s emphasis went back to individual needs due to the Civil Rights Act 1963

3.3.4. Elemenary Secondary Act 1965

3.3.4.1. Provided for special needs students

3.3.5. Nation at Risk (Reagan)

3.3.5.1. Still under these influences today. should get back to the basics

3.3.6. Goals 2000 (Clinton)

3.3.7. NCLB (Bush)

3.3.7.1. problem is highly qualified teachers. teaching areas that they are not qualified to teach

3.3.8. RTT (Obama)

3.3.8.1. basically still under the no child left behind, he just tweaked it a little.

3.3.9. Teaching to the Test to survive

3.3.10. Failing Schools

3.3.11. Charter Schools

3.3.12. Privatization of Schools

4. Education Inequality

4.1. sociological explanations of Inequality

4.1.1. Functionalists theorists support the idea that each students success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed.

4.1.2. Conflict theorists support the idea that student success is affected by their environment

4.1.3. interactionists theorists support that student success is determined by a combination of factors such as family, social class schools and environment.

4.2. student- centered factors such as family, peer group. community, culture and the student.

4.3. school-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum,, school climate and teacher expectations.

4.4. Student centered explanations p 421

4.4.1. Genetic differences explanations p 422

4.4.2. cultural deprivation explanations p 423

4.4.3. cultural differences explanations p 423-427

4.5. School Centered explanations

4.5.1. school financing p 428

4.5.2. effective schools p 431

4.5.3. between school differences p433

4.5.4. curriculum and pedalogic

4.5.4.1. within school differences p 434

4.5.4.2. curriculum and ability grouping p 434-436

4.6. The BIG question?? Do schools reproduce inequality???

4.6.1. yes and no, family does but school... not so much .

5. Equality of Opportunity

5.1. Do you have the following beliefs?

5.1.1. Public education has been conceived as a social vehicle for minimizing the importance of wealth and class as a determinant of who shall get ahead.

5.1.2. Americans believe that hard work, thrift and bit of luck should determine who gets ahead.

5.2. calculating educational and life outcomes

5.2.1. social stratification is a structural characteristic of societies.

5.3. Social Stratification- three systems

5.3.1. Caste- a persons' social level is determined by race or religion

5.3.2. Estate systems- a persons' social level is determined by family value and worth

5.3.3. Class systems- a persons' worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement p340

5.4. the lower classes in America have had their ability to overcome decreased because of inflation.

5.5. educational achievement is directly related to family achievement and social class

5.6. educational achievement is directly related to financial success P340

5.7. Class

5.7.1. schools represent the middle and upper class

5.7.2. parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance. p342

5.8. race

5.8.1. race has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves.

5.8.1.1. minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans p 343

5.9. Gender

5.9.1. in the last twenty years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment.

5.9.2. disparities still exist in education and job salaries. p343

5.10. SAT and ACT test have become the determining factor for educational success.

5.10.1. ACT and SAT test have favored the white Americans and upper and middle class students.

5.11. students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains in educational opportunities due to PL 94-142 or the EHA. Education of Handicapped 1975

5.11.1. IDEA 1996

5.11.2. REI - Regular Educational Initiative or mainstreaming p 364

5.12. School differences and Educational outcomes

5.13. The Coleman Study 1966

5.13.1. coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body compositions between schools p 367

5.13.2. as a result lower class students should attend schools with the middle class.

5.13.3. private school students outperform public school students

5.13.4. differences in schools do make a difference. the difference is in how much more demanding private schools are of their students. p.368

5.13.5. where a student attends school is often related to race and socioeconomic status

5.14. school segregation

5.14.1. despite decreases in segregation, racial and ethnic segregration is increasing

5.14.2. evidence shows that highly segregated schools have lower achievement levels than integrated schools and minorities do better in integrated schools. p 372-373

5.15. education provides social and economic mobility but for the most part perpetuates the social classes p377

6. History of U.S. Education

6.1. The school serves as a focal point for addressing societal issues.

6.2. Old Deluder Satan Law 1647

6.2.1. To teach people to read so they will know their salvation.

6.3. Massachusetts School of Law of 1647

6.3.1. Started Public Education

6.4. Secondary education was for the sons of the elite who were usually tutored at home rather than receiving their primary schooling at the local town school. Called "Latin Grammar School"

6.5. The first public university to admit women was the University of Iowa in 1856

6.6. John Dewey

6.6.1. The father of modern education, emphasized the needs of the individual to create a better society.

6.7. Industrial Revolution caused the need for educated workers. Gap between rich and poor widened.

6.8. The Committee of Ten, 1893

6.8.1. The Committee of Ten was created by the National Education Association which was chaired by Harvard University president, Charles Elliot

6.8.2. The Committee's recommendation for high school in 1918 was

6.8.2.1. Health,

6.8.2.2. Command of fundamental processes

6.8.2.3. Worthy home membership

6.8.2.4. Vocation

6.8.2.5. Citizenship

6.8.2.6. Worthy use of leisure

6.8.2.7. Ethical Character

6.8.2.8. They also est. Carnegie for graduation and college entrance curriculum

6.9. The G. I bill was a major importance on education

6.10. The Dilemma for Education for all

6.10.1. 1.) Tension between classical subjects such as Latin and Greek versus science and math, etc.

6.10.2. 2.) College entrance requirements due to so many disparities in entrance requirements.

6.10.3. 3.) High school students should be prepared for life not college

6.10.4. 4.) All students should follow the same courses of study regardless of need for further education.

6.10.5. 5.) The Cardinal Principle of Secondary Education

6.11. Progressive V. Traditional

6.11.1. Post world war 2 demands required more technical innovations and focused on social mobility

6.11.2. The battle; standards of an education versus the education opportunity for all.

6.11.3. The college student movement for civil rights

6.11.3.1. U. of Michigan

6.11.3.2. San Francisco State

6.11.3.3. Kent State

6.11.3.4. U. of California

6.11.4. Equality and Equity pg 76

6.11.5. Plessy V. Ferguson of 1896 pg 77

6.11.5.1. public facilities could separate races but had to be equal facilities

6.11.6. Civil Rights Act 1963

6.11.7. Brown V. Topeka Board of Education 1954 pg 79

6.11.7.1. overruled the case of Plessy V. Ferguson ( Dissolved the separation of race.)

6.11.7.2. Desegregation was the main focus

6.11.7.3. Schools and Colleges opened doors for all.

6.12. Three Historical Perspectives of U.S. Educations pg 83

6.12.1. Democratic- Liberal School

6.12.2. Radical- Revisionist School

6.12.3. Conservative School

6.13. FAPE

6.13.1. Free and Appropriate Education

6.14. •Meritocracy

7. Sociological Perspectives

7.1. The societal level includes the most general levels of society such as its political and economic systems, level of development, and system of social stratification.

7.2. The institutional level includes family, schools, churches, business, government and media.

7.3. The Interpersonal includes all the processes, symbols interactions within such organizations such as face to face interactions, gestures and rituals.

7.4. The Intrapsychic which includes the individual thoughts, beliefs, values and feelings which are shaped by societies institutions.

7.5. Schools are agents of cultural social transmission. Students are taught the values and beliefs of the society for them to think and act like other members of society. Schools stratify students into tracks by curricular placements which results in how they are successful.

7.6. Conflict- schools are oppressive and students are rebellious. They are forced to attend. College degrees are primarily status symbols and do not indicate actual achievement. Where you go to school can determine your success more than achievement. Interactional theorist suggest that schools are middle class organizations and lower social classes are at a disadvantage.

7.7. More education results in better jobs and opportunities.

8. Schools as Organizations

8.1. The U.S constitution does not provide for education

8.2. Student Composition in public schools

8.2.1. 53.5% are white

8.2.2. Of the states, 16 have less than 50% whites

8.2.3. ten states have no minorities

8.2.4. large states are heavily multiracial

8.3. Degree Openness

8.3.1. very few academic impedimics exist to graduate highschool but many impedimics exists

8.3.2. very democratic process of education

8.3.3. open to all and very inclusive

8.4. Private Schools

8.4.1. private schools constitute 25% of all schools and educate on 10% of all students

8.5. International Comparisons

8.5.1. In other countries individuals go through rigoruos academic rights of passage. This designs represents those can and those that cannot as well as those that have and those that have not.

8.6. France

8.6.1. France has every elitist educational system

8.7. Former Soviet Union

8.7.1. Very centralized system where all students would become productive citizens leaving no one in need.

8.7.2. Being a member of elite communist had benefits for those children

8.7.3. This special interest created a stratified system

8.8. Japan

8.8.1. After WW2 japan focused on the economic purpose to drive educational purposes

8.8.2. education is highly competitive

8.8.3. very demanding and rigorous college entrance exams

8.8.4. a double system of education exists

8.9. School processes and cultures

8.9.1. Schools are seperate social organizations because.

8.9.1.1. They have definite populations

8.9.1.2. they have political structures

8.9.1.3. they represent a multitude of social groups

8.9.1.4. they are prevailed by the "we feeling"

8.9.1.5. they have their own special culture

8.9.2. teachers are in conflict with students

8.9.2.1. curriculum vs. social goals of students

8.9.3. teachers, teaching and professionalism

8.9.3.1. turn each day into a special event

8.9.3.2. key to teaching is exercising control

8.9.3.3. most effective feedback is from students

8.9.3.4. the nature of teaching requires many hats and is very demanding as a result

8.9.3.5. the multiple roles are a significant factor in teacher burn-out

9. Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge

9.1. What is taught and how do we teach it?

9.1.1. do students actually learn what is taught? p300 what is learned and what is taught may have a large gap between them. Closing the gap and how? Schooling does have an impact on learning. Effective School characteristics p301. do all students have the same educational experiences even though they attend the same classes/

9.1.2. how will you teach and what determines how you teach? one word describes or determines your approach. Maturity includes chronological maturity, social maturity, emotional maturity, culturally- valued maturity, political maturity and ?

9.2. Social Influences

9.2.1. Social order determines the curriculum p292

9.2.2. A capitalist society perpetuates the curriculum for maintaining social order p293

9.2.3. Multiculturalists influence on curriculum has promoted a diverse needs classroom p 294

9.2.4. Conservatists argue that multicultural curriculum had diluted western civilizational values. they say we have melted and lost our western cultural identity

9.3. Political Influences

9.3.1. Political influences of the curriculum have determine and set battle lines for domination of what should be taught. Who shapes the curriculum and determines what is taught? Should business determine the curriculum? Should Religion determine the curriculum?

9.4. Societies' Influences

9.4.1. Formal curriculum- what is cognitively taught (subject)

9.4.2. Informal or Hidden curriculum- taught but not obvious to sight

9.4.3. Null Curriculum- what is not taught but is learned ( values of community)

9.5. Cultural Influences

9.6. Special Interests

9.7. Conservatist of the 1980s and 1990s say we should teach what is fundamentally basic to a common culture. P282

9.8. Social Efficiency Curriculum advocates say that we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive.

9.9. Different needs for different people was their concern for curriculum

9.10. Social Meliorists- reform society through schools also known as social reconstruction

9.11. Communities reflect what is important to them as a society.

9.12. should the wealthy determine the curriculum? Which group has the most power to influence curriculum p286-287

9.13. Other influences on the curriculum: Evolutionists, creationists, science and math, nation at risk, NCLB, RTT

9.14. Student centered or teacher centered p298 stratification of the curriculum. students are tracked and directed to a specific curriculum such as advanced diplomas and vocational diplomas. Tracking begins in elementary and continues through secondary by means of testing p 299

10. Educational Reform and School Improvement

10.1. Characteristic of highly effective teachers

10.1.1. A calling for the profession

10.1.2. a professional knowledge

10.1.3. personal qualities

10.1.4. with-it-ness

10.1.5. instructional effectiveness

10.1.6. good communicator

10.1.7. street smart

10.1.8. willing to go the extra mile

10.1.9. lifelong learner

10.2. the single most important factor in a students education is the teacher.

10.3. Reform in Education 1980s-2012

10.3.1. Two waves of attack

10.3.1.1. The first was concerned with accountability and achievement.

10.3.1.2. the second was concerned with the process of the school. Top down management from the federal government. P.513

10.4. John Goodlad- Book called The place called school

10.5. Federal Involvement

10.5.1. America 2000 p 514

10.5.2. Goals 2000 p 515

10.5.3. No child left behind p 517

10.5.4. Race to the top p 518

10.6. Approaches to Reform p 519

10.6.1. Neo Liberal Approach

10.6.2. Societal and Community Approach

10.7. School Based Reforms p 520

10.7.1. School Choice

10.7.2. Charter Schools

10.7.3. Tuition Vouchers

10.7.4. Intersectional Choice plans (public to private)

10.7.5. Intrasectional Choice plans (any public school in district)

10.8. School-Business partnerships p526-527

10.8.1. privation of schools

10.8.2. school to work programs

10.9. Teacher Education Programs p528

10.9.1. Three Major Points

10.9.1.1. more intellectual demands in education programs

10.9.1.2. attract and retain competent teachers

10.9.1.3. reorganize educational academic and professional developement

10.10. Teacher Qualities p 531

10.11. The effective school movement p 531

10.12. Plan on p 532

10.13. highly effective school characteristics p533

10.14. Societal, community, economic and political reforms p 353

10.14.1. State takeovers pros and cons p536

10.14.2. School finance reforms p 538

10.14.2.1. where you are born or live determines your advantage for a good education.

10.14.3. full service schools p 539

10.14.3.1. repair and educate the community

10.15. Connecting school community and societal reforms p 540