Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Philosophy of Education

1.1. Idealism

1.1.1. Perenialism

1.2. Modern Realism

1.2.1. Essentialism

1.3. Pragmatism

1.3.1. Progressivism Students learn by hands-on as well as from textbooks Education is based on needs and interests of students Experiential learning Grouping by interest and abilities Teach through field trips and games Emphasis on natural and social sciences

1.3.2. Social Reconstructionism

1.3.3. Role of the teacher- facilitator of learning activities

1.3.4. Method of instruction- learn individually as well as in groups

1.3.5. Curriculum- Integrated core subjects, teaching across the curriculum

1.4. Existentialism/ Phenomenology

1.4.1. Existentialism

1.5. Post- modernism

1.5.1. Critical Pedagogy

2. Politics of Education

2.1. Conservative Perspective

2.1.1. Groups must compete in the social environment in order to survive

2.1.2. Human progress is dependent on individual initiative drive

2.1.3. Believe that free market or market economy of capitalism is both productive and respectful

2.2. Traditional Vision of Education

2.2.1. Views schools as necessary to the transmission of the traditional values of U.S. society

2.2.2. Believe schools should pass on the best of what was and what is

2.2.3. Traditional leans more toward the conservative side

3. Equality of Opportunity

3.1. Calculating Educational and Life Outcomes

3.1.1. Social stratification is a structural characteristic of societies

3.1.2. Human differences do not cause social stratification; social stratification causes human differences

3.2. Social stratification(Three Systems)

3.2.1. Caste- a persons' social level is determined by race and religion

3.2.2. Estate systems- A persons' social level is determined by family value and worth

3.2.3. Class systems- a persons' worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement. (p.430)

3.3. Educational achievement is directly related to family achievement and social class.

3.4. Educational achievement is directly related to financial success. (p.430)

3.5. Class

3.5.1. Schools represent the middle and upper class.

3.5.2. Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance. (P.342)

3.6. Race

3.6.1. Race has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves.

3.6.2. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans. (P.343)

3.7. Gender

3.7.1. In the last twenty years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment.

3.7.2. Disparities still exist in education and job salaries. (P 343)

3.8. SAT and ACT test have become the determining factor for educational success.

3.9. ACT and SAT test have favored the white Americans and upper and middle class students. (P.357)

3.10. Students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains in educational opportunities due to PL 94-142 or the EHA. Education of Handicapped 1975

3.11. IDEA 1996

3.12. REI- Regular Educational Initiative or mainstreaming.(P.364)

4. Education Inequality

4.1. Sociological Explanations of Inequality

4.1.1. Functionalists Theorists support the idea that each students' success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed

4.1.2. Conflict Theorists support the idea that student success is affected by their environment

4.1.3. Interactionists Theorists support that student success is determined by a combination of factors such as family, social class schools and environment.

4.2. Other factors that influence student success:

4.2.1. Student-centered factors such as family, peer group, community, culture and the student.

4.2.2. School-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate and teacher expectations.

4.3. Student Centered Explanations p.421 Genetic Differences Explanations p. 422 Cultural Deprivations Explanations p. 423 Cultural Differences Explanations p. 423-427

4.4. School Centered Explanations: School Financing p. 428 Effective Schools p. 431 Between School Differences p. 433 Curriculum and Pedagogic Within School Differences p. 434 Curriculum and Ability Grouping p. 434-436

5. History of U.S. Education

5.1. Conservative Perspective

5.1.1. According to Ravitch, the conservative and neo-liberal pursuit of academic excellence have neither improved the schools or moved us closer to a fair and just society.

5.1.2. During Reagan's presidency, education was converted back into a traditional Western curriculum.

5.2. Equality of Opportunity

5.2.1. The demand for this has been a feature of U.S. history.

5.2.2. The GI Bill of Rights was offered immediately following the Second World War.

5.2.3. Plessy vs. Ferguson- "separate but equal" doctrine

5.2.4. In the 1960s and 1970s most of the reforms were focused on equality of opportunity and increased access at all levels of education.

6. Schools as Organizations

6.1. Constitution does not provide for education

6.2. The U.S. Department of Education was created in 1970.

6.3. International comparisons: In other countries individuals go through rigorous academic rites of passage. This design separates those that can and those that cannot as well as those that have and those that have not.

6.4. Great Britain: - In the 19th Century England the rich had private schools and the poor did not get educated. - England decentralized the education system which had been fundamentally elitists - Margaret Thatcher and conservatives tried to privatize public education

6.5. France: - Elitists educational system - They have schools for the poor and schools for the elite - The government controls everything down to the classroom

6.6. Former Soviet Union: - Very centralized system where all students would become productive citizens leaving no one in need.

6.7. Japan: - Centralized its educational system - Education is highly competitive - Very demanding and rigorous college entrance exams

6.8. Germany: - Students are sorted at an early age to be tracked into their appropriate careers - Hauptschule- lower level blue collar work - Realschule- lower level white collar and technical positions - Very competitive

6.9. Finland: - Had historically the highest scores on math, science, and literacy exams - Almost no standardized tests - Emphasis is on formative assessment - High regard for teachers and has competitive salaries - Large amount of autonomy

6.10. School Processes and Cultures

6.10.1. Schools are separate social organizations

6.10.2. Have definitive populations

6.10.3. Have political structures

6.10.4. Represent a multitude of social groups

6.10.5. Prevailed by the "we feeling"

6.10.6. Have their own special culture

6.10.7. Teachers are in conflict with students: Curriculum v. social goals of students

6.10.8. Administrators and teachers are in conflict: structure vs. teaching

6.10.9. Communities are in conflict with administration

6.10.10. Studies show that the principal establishes the goals levels of academic and social expectations and the effectiveness of disicipline

6.10.11. Effecting change in schools is difficult at its minimum

6.10.12. Bureaucracies control everything focusing on rules, regulations, and conformity. Bureaucratic rationality suppress creativity.

6.10.13. Changing a school culture requires patience skill and good will.

6.11. Teachers, Teaching, and Professionalism

7. Sociological Perspectives

7.1. Sociology is the understanding how social aspirations and fears force people to ask questions about the societies and culture in which they live.

7.2. An understanding of society is essential if teachers are to develop as reflective practitioners.

7.3. Persell's model for analyzing school and societies relationship

7.3.1. Societal level(p.114)- includes the most general structures of a society, including its political and economic systems, its level of development, and its system of social stratification

7.3.2. Institutional level(p.114)- includes family, school, churches, business, government, and media

7.3.3. Interpersonal level(p.114)- includes all the processes, symbols, interactions within such organizations such as face to face interactions, gestures and rituals

7.3.4. Intrapsychic level(p.114)- includes the individual thoughts, beliefs, values and feelings which are shaped in societies institutions

7.4. Conflict theory is concerned with the ways in which differences among groups at the societal level produce conflict and domination that may lead to change.


7.5.1. How can people create schools that are more effective environments in which children can grow and learn?

7.5.2. What is the relation between school and the larger society?

7.5.3. Can schools produce more social and economic equality?

7.6. Characteristics of highly effective schools(p. 116)

7.6.1. Principal who makes clear, consistent and fair decisions

7.6.2. Instructions that focus on student achievement

7.6.3. Teachers believe all students can learn

7.6.4. Safe and orderly environment

7.6.5. Constant review of student progress

7.7. Effectives of schooling on individuals

7.7.1. How people learn

7.7.2. Employment

7.7.3. Job performance

7.7.4. Income

7.7.5. Mobility

7.8. De Facto Segregation

7.8.1. People segregate themselves into their comfort areas

7.8.2. Racial integration benefits minorities more than the majority

7.8.3. Integration does not seem to harm the majority

7.9. Gender Bias

7.9.1. Men are still paid more for equivalent

7.9.2. Academics are leveling between the sexes

7.9.3. Schools are still perpetuating gender inequalities

7.10. The Current Educational Crisis

7.10.1. One third of children are at-risk of failing

7.10.2. One fourth of preschool children live in poverty

7.10.3. Fifteen million are reared by single mothers

7.10.4. How can schools help students to be successful members of society when they start out at such a disadvantage?

8. Education Reform

8.1. Characteristics of highly effective teachers

8.1.1. 1. A "calling" for the profession

8.1.2. 2. Professional Knowledge

8.1.3. 3. Personal qualities

8.1.4. 4. With-it-ness

8.1.5. 5. Instructional Effectiveness

8.1.6. 6. Good Com,municator

8.1.7. 7. Street smart

8.1.8. 8. Willing to go the extra mile

8.1.9. 9. Lifelong Learner

8.2. Reform in education 1980's to 2012(p.512)

8.2.1. Two waves of attack First was concerned with accountability and achievement Second was concerned with the processes of the school Top down management from the federal government(p.513)

8.3. John Goodlad- A Place Called School

8.4. Federal Involvement

8.4.1. America 2000 (p.514)

8.4.2. Goals 2000 (p. 515)

8.4.3. No Child Left Behind (p.517)

8.4.4. Race To The Top (p. 518)

8.5. Approaches to Reform (p.519)

8.5.1. Neo Liberal Approach

8.5.2. Societal and Community Approach

8.6. School Based Reforms(p. 520)

8.6.1. School choice

8.6.2. Charter Schools

8.6.3. Tuition Vouchers

8.6.4. Intersectional Choice Plans(public to private)

8.6.5. Intrasectional Choice Plans(any public school in district)

8.6.6. School- Business partnerships(p.526-527)

8.6.7. Privatization of Schools

8.6.8. School to Work Programs

8.7. Teacher Education Programs (p. 528) THREE MAJOR POINTS

8.7.1. More intellectual demands in education programs

8.7.2. Attract and retain competent teachers

8.7.3. Reorganize educational academic and professional development

8.7.4. Plan p. 532

8.8. Teacher Quality p. 531

8.9. The Effective School Movement p. 531

8.10. Highly Effective School Characteristics p. 533

8.11. Societal, Community, Economic and Political Reforms p. 535 State Takeovers Pros and Cons p. 536

8.12. School Finance Reforms p. 538 Where you are born or live determines your advantage for a good education.

8.13. Full Service Schools p. 539 Repair and educate the community

8.14. Connecting School Community and Societal Reforms p. 540 A Theory of Educational Problems and Reforms p. 541 Solutions and Proposals p. 543 – 545 Integrative Realm p. 542 - basic skills and knowledge is the focus for school improvement and student achievement. Developmental Realm – focus is on developing the whole child by having schools become more humane institutions.

9. Curriculum and Pedagogy

9.1. Social, political, societies', cultural influences, and special interests

9.2. Social Efficiency Curriculum advocates say that we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive.

9.3. Different needs for different people was their concern for curriculum

9.4. Conservatist of the 1980s- 1990s was we should teach what is fundamentally basic to a common culture(p. 282)

9.5. Social meliorists- reform society through schools also known as social reconstruction

9.6. Communities(schools) reflect what is important to them as a society

9.7. Political influences of the curriculum have determine and set battle lines for domination of what should be taught

9.8. The social class composition of the school and community have determined what is of value in the curriculum. P.285

9.9. Curriculum influences chart p. 287

9.10. Other influences on the curriculum:

9.10.1. Evolutionists

9.10.2. Creationists

9.10.3. Science and Math

9.10.4. Nation at Risk

9.10.5. NCLB(No Child Left Behind)

9.10.6. RTT

9.11. Formal curriculum- what is cognitively taught(subjects)

9.12. Informal or hidden curriculum- taught but not obvious to sight

9.13. Null curriculum- what is not taught but is learned(values of the community)

9.14. Society influences the curriculum

9.15. Social order determines the curriculum( p.292)

9.16. A capitalist society perpetuates the curriculum for maintaining social order(p. 293)

9.17. Multiculturalists influence on curriculum has promoted a diverse needs classroom(p. 294)

9.18. Conservatists argue that multicultural curriculum has diluted western civilization values. They saw we have melted and lost our western cultural identity.

9.19. Students are tracked and directed to a specific curriculum such as advanced diplomas and vocational diplomas

9.19.1. Tracking begins in elementary and continues through secondary by means of testing.(p. 299)

9.20. Effective school characteristics(p. 301)

9.21. Academic gap: between what is being taught and what the students are actually learning

9.22. One word determines how you will teach: MATURITY

9.22.1. Maturity includes: Chronological Maturity social maturity emotional maturity culturally- valued maturity political maturity