Foundation of Education

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Foundation of Education by Mind Map: Foundation of Education

1. Equality of Opportunity

1.1. Calculating Educational and Life Outcomes

1.1.1. Social stratification is a structural characteristic of societies.

1.1.2. Human differences do not cause social stratification; social stratification causes human differences. P. 339

1.2. Social stratification

1.2.1. Caste- a persons’ social level is determined by race or religion.

1.2.2. Estate systems – a persons’ social level is determined by family value and worth.

1.2.3. Class systems – a persons’ worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement. P. 340

1.3. Class

1.3.1. Schools represent the middle and upper class.

1.3.2. Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance. P. 342

1.4. Race

1.4.1. Race has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves.

1.4.2. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans. P. 343

1.5. Gender

1.5.1. In the last twenty years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment.

1.5.2. Disparities still exist in education and job salaries. P. 343

1.6. SAT and ACT test have become the determining factor for educational success.

1.7. ACT and SAT test have favored the white Americans and upper and middle class students. P. 357

1.8. Students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains in educational opportunities due to PL 94-142 or the EHA. Education of Handicapped 1975.

1.9. IDEA 1996

1.10. REI – Regular Educational Initiative or mainstreaming. P. 364

1.11. The Coleman Study 1966

1.11.1. Coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools. P. 367

1.11.2. As a result lower class students should attend schools with the middle and upper class to improve their educational success. P. 367

1.12. The Coleman Study 1982

1.12.1. Private school students outperform public school students.

1.12.2. Differences in schools do make a difference.

1.12.3. The difference is in how much more demanding private schools are of their students. P. 368

1.13. Coleman Study 2010 Challenges

1.13.1. Where a student attends school is often related to race and socioeconomic background. The racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater impact on student outcomes than an individual's race or socioeconomic status. P. 369

1.13.2. Therefore, schools do make a difference.

1.14. School Segregation

1.14.1. Despite decreases in segregation, racial and ethnic segregation is increasing.

1.14.2. Evidence shows that highly segregated schools have lower achievement levels than integrated schools and minorities do better in integrated schools. P. 372-373

1.15. Educational Attainment and Economic Achievement

1.15.1. College graduates have higher salaries. P.375

1.15.2. The amount of education is directly related to life chances.

1.15.3. Life chances are directly related to social level and race; however, schools do have a slight impact. P. 377

2. Politics of Education

3. Education Ineqality

3.1. Sociological Explanations of Inequality

3.1.1. Functionalist Theorists support the idea that each students’ success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed.

3.1.2. Conflict Theorists support the idea that student success is affected by their environment.

3.1.3. Interactionists Theorists support that student success is determined by a combination of factors such as family, social class schools and environment.

3.2. Other factors that influence student success are

3.2.1. Student-centered factors such as family, peer group, community, culture and the student.

3.2.2. School-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate and teacher expectations.

3.3. School Centered Explanations

3.3.1. School Financing p. 428

3.3.2. Effective Schools p. 431

3.3.3. Between School Differences p. 433

3.3.4. Curriculum and Pedagogic

3.3.5. Within School Differences p. 434

3.3.6. Curriculum and Ability Grouping p. 434-436

3.4. Student Centered Explanations p. 421

3.4.1. Genetic Differences Explanations p. 422

3.4.2. Cultural Deprivation Explanations p. 423

3.4.3. Cultural Differences Explanations p. 423-427

3.5. The BIG Question ? Do Schools Reproduce Inequality? Answer; No

4. Education of Reform

4.1. Characteristics of highly effective teachers

4.1.1. A ‘Calling’ for the profession

4.1.2. Professional knowledge

4.1.3. Personal qualities

4.1.4. With-it-ness

4.1.5. Instructional Effectiveness

4.1.6. Good communicator

4.1.7. Street smart

4.1.8. Willing to go the extra mile

4.1.9. Lifelong learner

4.2. Reform in education 1980’s to 2012 p. 512 Two Waves of Attack;

4.2.1. The first was concerned with accountability and achievement.

4.2.2. The second was concerned with the processes of the school.

4.2.3. Top down management from the federal government. P.513

4.3. Federal Involvement

4.3.1. America 2000 p. 514

4.3.2. Goals 2000 p. 515

4.3.3. No Child Left Behind p. 517

4.3.4. Race To The Top p. 518

4.4. Approaches to Reform p. 519

4.4.1. Neo Liberal Approach

4.4.2. Societal And Community Approach

4.5. School Based Reforms p. 520

4.5.1. School Choice

4.5.2. Charter Schools

4.5.3. Tuition Vouchers

4.5.4. Intersectional Choice Plans (public to private)

4.5.5. Intrasectional Choice Plans (any public school in district)

4.6. Teacher Education Programs p. 528 Three Major Points;

4.6.1. More intellectual demands in education programs

4.6.2. Attract and retain competent teachers

4.6.3. Reorganize educational academic and professional development Plan p. 5320

4.7. Teacher Quality p. 531

4.8. The Effective School Movement p. 531

4.9. Plan on p. 532

4.10. Highly Effective School Characteristics p. 533

4.11. Societal, Community, Economic and Political Reforms p. 535 State Takeovers Pros and Cons p. 536

4.12. School Finance Reforms p. 538

4.12.1. Where you are born or live determines your advantage for a good education.

4.13. Full Service Schools p. 539

4.13.1. Repair and educate the community

4.14. Connecting School Community and Societal Reforms p. 540

4.14.1. A Theory of Educational Problems and Reforms p. 541 Solutions and Proposals p. 543 – 545

4.14.1.1. Integrative Realm p. 542 - basic skills and knowledge is the focus for school improvement and student achievement.

4.14.1.2. Developmental Realm – focus is on developing the whole child by having schools become more humane institutions.

5. Philosophy of Education

5.1. Teacher Center

5.2. Student Center

5.3. Perenialism

5.4. Essentialism

5.5. Progressivism

5.6. Social Reconstructionism

5.7. Existentialism

5.7.1. Emphasis is on academics

5.7.2. Promotion is based on mastery of subject

5.7.3. Academically rigorous

5.7.4. Curriculum is determined by administrators

5.7.5. Curriculum consist of basic subjects

5.7.6. Teaching across the curriculum

5.8. Critical Pedagogy

5.9. Modern Realism

5.9.1. The material world is real. It exist without anyone perceiving. The real world exist before ideas exist. Aristotle develop a system of logical thinking. Syllogism or a system of logical thinking

5.9.2. 1. A major premise 2. A minor premise 3. Conclusion 4. Understand the facts then make assumptions and conclusions.

5.9.3. Notable Realists

5.9.3.1. Thomas Aquinas Francis Bacon John Locke (Blank slate or tabula rasa)

5.10. Idealism

5.10.1. Methods of Instruction

5.10.1.1. 1. Discussion 2. Questioning 3. Lecture on material not presented in text

5.10.2. Curriculum

5.10.2.1. 1. Study the great works

5.10.2.2. 2. All new problems have their roots in the past

5.10.2.3. 3. Study history

5.10.2.4. 4. Great literature, sciences, math, history, philosophy

5.10.2.5. 5. A basic core foundation

6. History of US Education

6.1. Child-centered reform

6.1.1. It is intended to address the distinct learning needs, interests, aspirations, or cultural backgrounds of individual students and groups of students. To accomplish this goal, schools, teachers, guidance counselors, and other educational specialists may employ a wide variety of educational methods, from modifying assignments and instructional strategies in the classroom to entirely redesigning the ways in which students are grouped and taught in a school.

6.2. Common School

6.2.1. The common school era is viewed by many education scholars to have ended around 1900. In the early twentieth century, schools generally became more regional, and control of schools moved away from elected school boards, and towards professional control. Because common schools were not special-purpose districts, voters often decided in called elections to join independent or unified school districts.

6.3. Utilitarianism

6.3.1. Is a theory in normative ethics holding that the best moral action is the one that maximizes utility. Utility is defined in various ways, but is usually related to the well-being of sentient entities.

6.4. The Old Deluder Law (1647)

6.4.1. It was one of America's first education acts, and it required that all towns of 50 or more families to provide an elementary school, where teachers were required to teach, not only reading and writing, but the bible as well. Towns that held 100 or more families were required to have grammer schools. This was a school where students focused mostly on latin and greek. The puritans believed that if their children read and studied the bible enough, then they would be able to resist evil temptations, and avoid sinners.

6.5. Meritocracy

6.5.1. Is a political philosophy which holds that power should be vested in individuals almost exclusively according to merit.. Advancement in such a system is based on performance measured through examination and/or demonstrated achievement in the field where it is implemented.

6.6. Massachusetts Law (1647)

6.7. Thomas Jefferson Supported Higher Education

6.8. The Age of Reform

6.9. First Board of Education (Mass 1839)

6.10. John Dewey, Father of modern Education.

6.11. The Commttee of Ten

6.11.1. 1.Health 2.Command Of fundamentals processes 3.Worthy Home Membership Vocation 4.Citizenship 6.worthy use of leisure 7.Ethical Character

6.12. G.I Bill

6.13. Plessy v Ferguson

6.13.1. was a landmark United States Supreme Court decision upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal". The decision was handed down by a vote of 7 to 1 with the majority opinion written by Justice Henry Billings Brown and the dissent written by Justice John Marshall Harlan.

6.14. Brown v Topeka Board of EDU

6.15. Space Race

6.16. Civile Rights Acts

6.17. Elementary/Secondary Education Act 1965

6.18. Refrom Act

6.18.1. Nation at Risk (Reagen) Goals 2000 (Clinton) NCLB (Bush) RTT (Obama)

6.19. Three Historical Perspective

6.19.1. Democratic-Liberal School Radical-Revisionist School Conservation School

6.20. Family Advocacy Program (FAP)

6.21. Reform Movement

6.22. Historical interpretation of U.S. Education

6.23. Massachusetts Law (1647)

7. Sociological Perspective

7.1. Determinism

7.1.1. The doctrine that all events, including human action, are ultimately determined by causes external to the will. Some philosophers have taken determinism to imply that individual human beings have no free will and cannot be held morally responsible for their actions.

7.2. Voluntarism

7.2.1. the principle of relying on voluntary action (used especially with reference to the involvement of voluntary organizations in social welfare).

7.3. SocializationTheory

7.3.1. This is theory occurs when a child learns the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular culture.

7.4. Social capital

7.4.1. the networks of relationships among people who live and work in a particular society, enabling that society to function effectively.

7.5. Cultural reproduction

7.5.1. is the transmission of existing cultural values and norms from generation to generation. Cultural reproduction refers to the mechanisms by which continuity of cultural experience is sustained across time.

7.6. Persell

7.7. Societal

7.8. Institutional

7.9. Intrapsychic

7.10. The use of Sociology for teachers

7.10.1. 1.Can schools create a more functional and equitable society? 2.What is the relationship between schools and society? 3.Does sociology help educators to create more effective schools which include; strong leadership, a safe and orderly environment, high expectations that all can learn, continual review of student progress, and a clear mission? 4. How does teacher interaction with students determine student success?

7.11. Highly Effective School

7.11.1. 1. A safe environment 2. Effective learning environment 3. Fair decision 4. Emphasis on discipline 5. Academic Achievement

7.12. Ned Flanders Theory

7.12.1. That Student performance and learning is great when the teacher influence is indirect

7.13. Functional Theories

7.13.1. Functional poses that society is best when a consensus rules. Conflict poses that influential groups impose their will on subordinate groups. Interactional poses that society develops as a result of interactions between students and teachers.

7.14. The Weberian

7.14.1. The approached to study the relation between school and society has developed into a compelling and informative tradition of sociological research

7.15. Cultural Capital

7.15.1. Knowledge and experiences related to art, music and literature

7.16. Social Capital

7.16.1. Social Networking and connections- are passed on by families and schools.

7.17. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

7.17.1. 1. Employment 2. Job performance 3. Income 4. Mobility 5. What people learn

7.18. More education, the better job you'll get.

7.19. American society resembles a triangle where most people are at the base. The top 20% in the U.S. possess 75% of the wealth. The top 2% of the world possess 80% of the wealth.

7.20. De facto Segregation

7.20.1. 1.People segregate themselves into their comfort areas. 2. Racial integration benefits minorities more than the majority. 3. Integration does not seem to harm the majority. Gender Biases 4. Men are still paid more for equivalent jobs. 5. Academics are leveling between the sexes. 6. Schools are still perpetuating gender inequalities.

7.21. The Current Educational Crisis

7.21.1. 1.One third of children are at-risk of failing. 2.One fourth of preschool children live in poverty. 3.Fifteen million are reared by single mothers. 4.How can schools help students to be successful members of society when they start out at such a disadvantage?

8. School As Organizations

8.1. The U.S Constitution

8.1.1. The U.S Constitution is not responsible for the education of childern

8.1.2. The U.S Department of Education was created in 1970

8.1.3. The U.S Dept. has very little power

8.1.4. The Structure of the U.S Schools

8.1.4.1. Private Schools

8.1.4.1.1. There are approximately 28,200 elementary and secondary private schools in the U.S

9. Curriculum and Pedagogy

9.1. What is taught and how do we teach it?

9.1.1. Idealists say we should teach the great works of mankind

9.1.2. Conservatist say we should return to a humanist foundation

9.1.3. Teach math, science, reading, history, foreign languages and emphasize the influence of western civilization.

9.1.4. Conservatist of the 1980’s and 1990’s say we should teach what is fundamentally basic to a common culture. P282

9.1.5. Social Efficiency Curriculum advocates say that we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive.

9.1.6. Conservatist say that social efficiency has diluted the curriculum to the point that it has lost the purpose of transmitting one common culture.

9.2. Social Influences

9.2.1. Communities reflect what is important to them as a society.

9.2.2. The social class composition of the school and community have determined what is of value in the curriculum. P.285

9.3. Political influences

9.3.1. Political Influences of the curriculum have determine and set battle lines for domination of what should be taught.

9.4. Societies’ influences

9.4.1. Social Efficiency became the cornerstone of Progressivism

9.4.2. Social meliorists – reform society through schools also known as social reconstruction

9.5. Cultural influences

9.5.1. Social order determines the curriculum p. 292

9.5.2. A capitalist society perpetuates the curriculum for maintaining social order. P. 293

9.5.3. Multiculturalists influence on curriculum has promoted a diverse needs classroom.p.294

9.5.4. Conservatists argue that multicultural curriculum had diluted western civilizational values. They say we have melted and lost our western cultural identity.

9.6. Special interests

9.7. Formal Teaching

9.7.1. Society influences the curriculum

9.7.2. Formal curriculum – what is cognitively taught (subjects)

9.7.3. Informal or Hidden curriculum – taught but not obvious to sight

9.7.4. Null curriculum – what is not taught but is learned (values of the community)

9.8. Student centered or teacher centered.

9.8.1. Stratification of the Curriculum

9.8.2. Students are tracked and directed to a specific curriculum such as advanced diplomas and vocational diplomas

9.8.3. Tracking begins in elementary and continues through secondary by means of testing. P. 299

9.9. Closeing the gap

9.9.1. What is taught and what is learned has a major gap in the class room.