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Volcanoes by Mind Map: Volcanoes

1. volcano types

1.1. shield

1.1.1. Kilauea and Mauna Loa (and their Hawaiian friends), Fernandina (and its Galápagos friends), Karthala, Erta Ale, Tolbachik, Masaya

1.1.2. not steep

1.1.3. almost always basalt

1.1.4. look like volcanoes

1.2. stratovolcanoes

1.2.1. Mt. St. Helens, Mt. Rainier, Pinatubo, Mt. Fuji, Merapi, Galeras, Cotopaxi


1.2.3. layers of materials

1.2.4. eruptions of andesite and dacite

1.2.5. explosive eruptions

1.2.6. aka composite volcano

1.3. Rhyolite caldera complexes

1.3.1. Yellowstone, La Primavera, Rabaul, Taupo, Toba


1.3.3. collapsing in on themselves

1.3.4. don't look like volcanoes

1.3.5. most explosive

1.4. Monogenetic fields


1.4.2. Michoacan-Guanajuato, San Martín Tuxtla, Pinacate, and the San Francisco volcanic field

1.4.3. result of very low supply rates of magma

1.4.4. collections of separate vents and flows

1.5. Flood basalts

1.5.1. Deccan Traps and Columbia River Basalt


1.5.3. may be more than 50 meters thick

1.5.4. thick basalt lava flows

1.6. Mid-ocean ridges

1.6.1. basalt


1.6.3. lava intrudes to the surface to fill in the space

1.6.4. oceanic spreading


2. eruption types

2.1. Surtseyan Eruption

2.1.1. hydromagmatic eruption, where magma or lava interacts explosively with water

2.2. Lava Domes

2.2.1. form when very viscous, rubbly lava (usually andesite, dacite or rhyolite) is squeezed out of a vent without exploding

2.3. Plinian Eruption

2.3.1. largest and most violent of all the types of volcanic eruptions

2.4. Vulcanian Eruption

2.4.1. andesite, dacite, or rhyolite

2.4.2. short, violent, relatively small explosion of viscous magma

2.5. Strombolian Eruption

2.5.1. basalt or basaltic andesite

2.5.2. distinct bursts of fluid lava

2.6. Hawaiian Eruption


2.6.2. 1969-1974 Mauna Ulu eruption on the volcano's flank, and the 1959 eruption of the Kilauea Iki Crater at the summit of Kilauea

2.6.3. can last for hours or even days

2.6.4. fluid basaltic lava is thrown into the air