My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Liberal Perspective

1.1.1. some government intervention necessary to promote equality of opportunity for all (FDR's New Deal)

1.1.2. balance economic productivity with social and economic needs of majority

1.1.3. equal opportunity for all students; balance individual and societal needs

1.1.4. achievement gap due to socioeconomic status and lack of diversity in curriculum and standards

1.2. Progressivism Vision of Education

1.2.1. schools central to solving social problems

1.2.2. education focus: teaching students how to improve society

2. Sociological Perspectives

2.1. Interactional Theories of Schooling

2.1.1. focus on microsociological aspects of school life: student/student and student/teacher interactions

2.1.2. labeling theory: focus on the processes of creating and applying labels as the problem

2.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

2.2.1. knowledge & attitudes

2.2.1.1. Ron Edmonds: effective schools movement

2.2.1.1.1. academically oriented schools typically produce higher rates of learning

2.2.1.2. amount of time spent in schools directly relates to how much a student learns

2.2.2. teacher behavior

2.2.2.1. Rosenthal and Jacobson: teacher expectations directly impact student achievement

2.2.2.2. Teachers are models for students, set standards for students, and influence student self-esteem.

2.2.3. inadequate schools

2.2.3.1. negatively impacts student success

2.2.3.2. urban education fails poor and minority children

2.2.3.3. differences in schools and school systems promote inequalities in education

3. Schools as Organizations

3.1. Stakeholders for Albertville City Schools

3.1.1. State Superintendent

3.1.1.1. Tommy Bice

3.1.2. Senator

3.1.2.1. Sen. Clay Scofield

3.1.3. Representative

3.1.3.1. Rep. Kerry Rich

3.1.4. Local Superintendent

3.1.4.1. Dr. Frederic Ayer

3.1.5. Local Board of Education

3.1.5.1. Rory Covin, Bobby Stewart, Lee Flemming, Mike Price, Sandy Elkins

3.2. Japan's Educational System

3.2.1. believed by some to be exemplary compared to U.S.

3.2.2. In Comparison to U.S.

3.2.2.1. equality of oppotunity

3.2.2.2. compulsory school attendance

3.2.3. In Contrast to U.S.

3.2.3.1. "double schooling"

3.2.3.2. extremely competitive university admittance

3.2.3.3. large private schooling influence parallel to public school

4. History of U.S. Education

4.1. Democratic-Liberal School

4.1.1. equal opportunity for all students

4.1.2. Ellwood Cubberly and Merle Curti

4.1.2.1. Common School Era is first step in opening U.S. education to all

4.1.3. Lawrence A. Cremin

4.1.3.1. popularization and multitudinousness: expansion of both opportunity and purpose of education

4.2. Common School Era

4.2.1. Horace Mann led creation of state board of Massachusetts in 1837

4.2.1.1. described schools as "the great equalizer of the conditions of men"

4.2.2. led to the popularization of free public education and started process for all following educational reforms

5. Philosophy of Education

5.1. Pragmatism

5.1.1. Generic Notions

5.1.1.1. equal educational opportunities for all

5.1.1.2. schools as embryonic communities

5.1.1.3. active participation of students in learning

5.1.2. Key Researchers

5.1.2.1. John Dewey

5.1.2.1.1. most influential philosophy in progressive education

5.1.2.2. Francis Bacon

5.1.2.2.1. proposed experiential approach

5.1.2.3. John Locke

5.1.2.3.1. knowledge acquired through senses

5.1.2.4. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

5.1.2.4.1. "back to nature"

5.1.3. Goal of Education

5.1.3.1. preparation for life in democratic society

5.1.3.2. development of lifelong learners who take action to improve society

5.1.4. Role of the Teacher

5.1.4.1. writes and implements curriculum

5.1.4.2. guide students in developing their own abilities

5.1.5. Method of Instruction

5.1.5.1. problem-solving and critical thinking

5.1.5.2. hands-on projects

5.1.5.3. individual and cooperative work

5.1.6. Curriculum

5.1.6.1. based on life

5.1.6.2. includes student needs and interests

5.1.6.3. interdisciplinary with thematic focus

5.1.6.4. social responsibility and democracy

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Developmentalist Curriculum

6.1.1. John Dewey's Influence

6.1.1.1. student-centered curriculum related to needs and interests of children

6.1.1.2. relate school to student life experiences

6.1.2. Piaget's Influence

6.1.2.1. appropriate curriculum based on developmental stages and needs of students

6.1.3. emphasized curricular content and teaching process

6.1.4. first became dominant in private progressive schools

6.1.5. little influence in U.S. public schools

6.2. Functionalist Theory

6.2.1. Talcott Parsons and Robert Dreeben

6.2.1.1. schools prepare students for complex societal roles

6.2.1.2. emphasis on teaching students how to learn rather than specific curricular content

6.2.1.3. meritocratic system

6.2.2. Emile Durkheim

6.2.2.1. schools combat moral and social breakdown

6.2.3. emphasis on respect and knowledge to promote modern society

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Achievement and Attainment of Hispanics

7.1.1. positive correlation between parental level of education and achievement

7.1.2. consistently score lower than white peers in both reading and math on standardized tests

7.1.3. 17.6% likely to drop out of high school; 62.7% graduate high school; 13.9% receive bachelor's degree

7.1.4. lower SAT scores than white peers on average resulting in lower scholarship awards and lower college admittance

7.2. Response to the Coleman Study Round 2

7.2.1. Jencks (1985): average achievement gain attributable to Catholic schools is tiny

7.2.2. Alexander & Pallas (1983): little basis for conclusions that Catholic schools are more effective

7.2.3. continuing debate over whether Catholic schools provide advantage

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Deprivation Theories

8.1.1. working class and non-white families lack cultural resources and educational stimuli which cause disadvantages before beginning school

8.1.2. culture of poverty deprives children of skills and attitudes necessary for satisfactory academic achievement

8.1.3. basis for Head-Start

8.2. School Financing

8.2.1. Affluent communities provide more per-student spending from property taxes due to higher property values and incomes than do poorer districts.

8.2.1.1. Education funding based solely on property taxes ruled unconstitutional in six states (1971-72)

8.2.1.2. Supreme Court overturned lower court decision and upheld use of local property taxes (1973)

8.2.2. Abbott v. Burke (1990) New Jersey: funding differences between rich and poor districts unconstitutional; led to Quality Education Act which increased per-student funding for poor districts in attempt to guarantee all districts have minimum necessary to provide quality education

8.2.2.1. demonstrated improvement in school achievement at fourth-grade level

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Teacher Quality

9.1.1. problems

9.1.1.1. secondary schools: 1/5 of core classes taught by teacher teaching out of their certification field

9.1.1.2. out- of-field and novice teachers more prevalent in urban and low-income schools

9.1.1.3. organizational issues at the school level

9.1.1.3.1. tenure and union contracts

9.1.2. solutions

9.1.2.1. some Race to the Top provisions

9.1.2.2. needs further research and support in order to improve teacher quality

9.2. School Finance Reforms

9.2.1. problems

9.2.1.1. discrimination in funding for schools with urban schools receiving less funding than suburban schools

9.2.2. solutions

9.2.2.1. New Jersey: Abbott v. Burke

9.2.2.1.1. equalized funding and addressed other outside factors

9.2.2.1.2. replaced by SFRA in 2009 which allocates district funding based on student needs

9.2.2.2. New York: CFE v. State of New York provided additional funding to public schools

9.2.3. alone, limited in reducing achievement gaps