My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Conservative

1.1.1. Human progress is dependent on individual initiative and drive.

1.1.2. Adam Smith & Milton Friedman

1.1.3. Individuals are rational actors who make decisions on cost-benefit scale.

1.1.3.1. Capacity to earn or not earn

1.1.4. Reagan philosophy

1.2. Traditional

1.2.1. Necessary for transmission of traditional values

1.2.1.1. (EX: hard work, family unity, individual initiative, etc.)

1.2.2. http://www.wingraschool.org/who/progressive.htm

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Urbanization

2.1.1. John Dewey

2.1.1.1. Result of education was growth

2.1.1.2. Laboratory School at the Uni. of Chicago

2.1.1.3. Advocated active learning, started with the needs & interests of the child.

2.1.1.4. Teacher as facilitator of learning rather than the font from which all knowledge flows

2.1.2. Progressive reforms

2.1.2.1. Edward L. Thorndike

2.1.2.1.1. Human nature could be altered for better or worse, depending on education to which it was subjected

2.1.2.2. G. Stanley Hall

2.1.2.2.1. Schools should tailor curriculum to stages of child development

2.2. Democratic Liberal School

2.2.1. Equal opportunity for all

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Emile Durkheim major works found on p. 118

3.1.1. Emphasized that values and cohesion set the tone for how present-day functionalists approach the study of education.

3.2. Schooling shapes children's perceptions of the world by process of socialization.

3.2.1. Ex: values, beliefs, and norms of society are internalized within children

3.2.2. Socialization can shaped a child's consciousness profoundly.

3.3. Effects of schooling of individuals: employment, sense of well-being and self-esteem, more likely to be more liberal.

3.3.1. *Graduating from college will lead to greater employment opportunities

3.3.2. *More likely to be more liberal (open minded) when it comes to their political and social attitudes.

3.4. Sociology of education will always be a contentious field.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Existentialism & Phenomenology

4.1.1. Generic Notions: Individuals are in a state of constantly becoming

4.1.1.1. Phenomenologists focus on the phenomena of consciousness, perception, & meaning

4.1.1.1.1. Believe individuals are placed in this earth alone and must make some sense out of the chaos they encounter

4.1.2. Goal of Education: Education should focus on the needs of individuals; cognitively & affectively

4.1.3. Role of the Teacher: Teachers should understand their own "lived worlds" as well as their students

4.1.3.1. Teachers must take risks, expose themselves to resistant students; work constantly to enable students

4.1.3.1.1. Role of teacher: intensely personal---tremendous responsibility

4.1.4. Method of Instruction: believes each child has a different learning style & is up to teacher to discover what works for each child

4.1.4.1. Role of teacher is to help students understand the world through posing questions, generating activities, & working together.

4.1.5. Curriculum: curriculum biased toward humanities

4.1.5.1. Literature especially has meaning because it is able to evoke responses in readers that might move them to new levels of awareness

4.1.5.1.1. Art, drama, music: encourage person interaction

4.1.5.2. Believe in exposing students at early ages to problems as well as possibilities.

4.2. Key Researchers: Phenomenology was primarily developed by Edmund Husserl (1859-1935), Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), & Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961).

4.2.1. Most recent philosophers who work in this school: Martin Buber (1878-1965), Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), Jean Paul Sartre (1905-1986), & Maxine Greene.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Organization of US schools is complex on several levels

5.2. Since the Civil Rights movement of the 1960's, the federal govt. has entered the educational policy field originally through the enforcement of students' civil rights.

5.3. Size & Degree of Centralization

5.3.1. estimated more than 55 million children are enrolled in K-12 and the cost of educating them is over $650 billion annually

5.4. Student Composition

5.4.1. 2010-of the 50 states & the District of Columbia, 16 have less than 50% of white students, and 10 states have almost no minority students.

5.4.2. Some large states such as California, Texas, & New York are extremely racially mixed

5.4.3. Many urban schools enroll mostly minority students

5.4.4. Student comp. can also be viewed along other dimensions such as gender, class, ethnicity, & even ability

5.5. Degree of "Openness"

5.5.1. school system designed to give students many opportunities to advance

5.5.1.1. U.S. school systems are quite open

5.5.1.1.1. -all children are entitled to enroll into public schools and to remain in school until they graduate

5.6. Private schools tend to attract students from families that are relatively affluent and have a commitment to education.

5.6.1. tremendous amount of diversity in the private sector-although most private sectors are affiliated with religious organizations.

5.6.1.1. Most are located on East and West Coasts.

5.7. International Comparisons

5.7.1. Countries vary considerably by how they organize their school systems-fews school systems are as complex as the U.S.

5.7.1.1. Great Britain, The Former Soviet Union, Japan, Germany, Finland. (pg. 224-229)

5.8. Tennessee State Senators- Speaker of the Senate: Ron Ramsey, Speaker Pro Tempore: Bo Watson, Deputy Speaker: Steve Southerland, Majority Leader: Mark Norris, Majority Caucus Leader: Bill Ketron, Minority Leader: Lee Harris, Minority Causus Leader: Jeff Yarbro

5.8.1. House of Representatives: http://www.capitol.tn.gov/house/members/

5.8.1.1. Local: Lincoln County Board of Education- Superintendent Dr. Bill Heath

5.8.2. Representatives on State school board: https://www.tn.gov/sbe/topic/board-members

5.8.2.1. State Superintendent: Kevin Huffman

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Sociological curriculum theory: Modern Functionalist Theory

6.1.1. school curriculum designed to enable students to function within modern society

6.1.1.1. 20th century curriculum had to change to meet the new requirements of the new world

6.1.2. prepared students for increasingly complex roles required in modern society

6.1.2.1. For functionalist, the specific content curriculum (history lang, etc.) is less important than the role of schools in teaching students how to learn

6.1.2.1.1. vital in increasing technocratic society

6.2. Historical curriculum theory: Developmentalist Curriculum

6.2.1. related to the needs and interests of the student rather than the needs of society

6.2.1.1. emphasized process of teaching as well as its content

6.2.2. student centered

6.2.2.1. stressed flexibility in both what was taught and how it was taught

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Achievement goes up in relation to parental level of education

7.1.1. African American students ages ranges of 9, 13, & 17: all scored lowest on avg. reading scale scores, & avg. math scale scores.

7.1.1.1. As years progressed from 1971, to 1988, African American's Average Reading NAEP Scores climbed up above Latino's.

7.1.1.1.1. After 1988, the gaps widen. White's scores leap. Black and Latino scores go up and down.

7.1.1.2. Reading skills at the start of kindergarden for African Americans: percentage rank of 34%

7.1.1.2.1. 27% percentile mathematics skills at start of kindergarden

7.2. Attainment: 84% of African Americans graduated from high school

7.2.1. !9.9% of African Americans received a bachelor's degree

7.2.1.1. Data indicates that despite these improvements, African American students will still lag behind in educational achievement and attainment.

7.3. Coleman Study response: what Coleman and his associates saw as significant, others didn't

7.3.1. private schools "do it better" particularly for low income families

7.3.2. Jencks (1985) used Coleman's study to compute the estimated yearly avg. achievement gain by public & Catholic school students

7.3.2.1. Catholic schools seem to advantage low income families

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. School-centered: School Financing

8.1.1. Jonathan Kozol (1991) documented vast differences in funding between affluent & poor districts

8.1.1.1. Public schools are financed through a combo of revenues from: local, state, & federal sources

8.1.1.2. However, majority of funding comes from state and local taxes

8.1.2. called for equalization in school financing

8.2. Sociological explanation:

8.2.1. research on educational outcomes attempts to separate the independent

8.2.1.1. social class background has the most powerful effect on educational achievement & attainment

8.2.1.1.1. social class appears to be the more powerful explanatory variable in explaining educational attainment & achievement.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School Finance Reforms: court ruled in 1990 more funding was needed to serve children in the poorer school districts

9.1.1. Funding was equalized between urban and suburban school districts

9.1.1.1. Extra funding for was to be distributed provided additional programs to eliminate disadvantages within poorer districts

9.1.1.2. (2009) NJ Supreme Court ruled as constitutional a funding formula, SFRA: eliminated the Abbott remedies and implemented a formula for allocating funding to all districts based on needs of students.

9.2. Societal Reform: Society/Community based approach

9.2.1. argue that schools are limited institutions for eradicating the effect of poverty & its effects on children.

9.2.1.1. economic & social differences between races & classes affects academic achievement at all levels.

9.2.1.1.1. Minority & lower class children have more vision, hearing, & oral health problems than white children.