My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Philosophy of Education

1.1. Pragmatisim

1.1.1. Encourages people to find processes that work to achieve their desired goals.

1.1.2. John Dewey (1859-1952)- Formulated the terms Instrumentalism and Experimentalism.

1.1.2.1. Believed we teachers should start with the needs and interests of the students in the classroom.

1.1.3. Goal of Education is to balance the social role of school with it's efforts on the social intellectual and personal development of individuals.

1.1.3.1. Primary role is growth.

1.1.3.2. Cooperation and Community are the desired ends in this philosophy.

1.1.4. The role of the teacher is to help the students have an important role in their education by providing with a course of study and curriculum but also giving them freedom to express individual interest and goals in the classroom.

1.1.5. Method of instruction is the problem solving method and inquiry method.

1.1.6. Curriculum is integrated and changes as the students' needs change or society changes.

2. Equality of Opportunity

2.1. Women (Gender)

2.1.1. More women are now attending post secondary colleges and the gender differences have been reduced over the last twenty years.

2.2. Students with special needs

2.2.1. Education of All Handicapped Children Law

2.2.1.1. Passed in 1975 and guaranteed that children with special needs would be places in proper classes

2.2.1.2. In 1996 was reauthorized and called Disabilities Education Act

2.2.2. Far to many students are being labeled as special needs or handicapped and this is limiting their educational opportunities.

2.2.3. We need to implement a more flexible placement plan which puts students needs first.

2.3. Coleman Study

2.3.1. Where an individual goes to school is based on race and economic status.

2.3.1.1. Affects their education because that lower income areas often have low funded schools and few educational opportunities.

2.3.2. Higher social class is correlated with higher achievement.

3. Politics of Education

3.1. Liberal

3.1.1. Quality with Equality

3.1.1.1. All students deserve an equal education and the chance to succeed.

3.1.2. Acceptable Performance Standards

3.1.3. Diane Ravitch

3.2. Progressivism

3.2.1. A progress which schools can make things better in society.

3.2.2. Solve social problems

3.2.3. Develop individual potemtial.

3.3. Diane Ravitch.

4. Schools as Organizations

4.1. President of The United States- Barack Obama

4.2. Alabama Governor- Robert Bentley

4.3. Alabama State Senators- Richard Shelby & Jeff Sessions

4.4. State Representative- Mo Brooks

4.5. State Superintendent- Tommy Bice

4.5.1. State School Board Members- Jeffrey Newman, Yvette Richardson, Matthew Brown, Betty Peters, Stephanie Bell, Cynthia Sanders McCarty, & Mary Scott HUnter.

4.6. Local Superintendent- Bill W. Hopkins

4.6.1. Local School Board Members- Billy Rhodes, Paul Holmes, Tom Earwood, Mike Tarpley, Jeff McLemore, Adam Greene, & Jimmy Dobbs.

5. Curriculum and Pedagogy

5.1. Developmentalist Curriculum

5.1.1. Believe needs and interest of the students should come before needs of society.

5.1.2. Emphasizes process of teaching and its content.

5.1.3. Provides flexability in what is taught as well as how it is taught.

5.1.4. Relates school and the curriculum to life experiences to make learning a meaningful experience for students.

5.2. Functionalist Theory

5.2.1. Curriculum is the knowledge that student's will need to become successful members of society.

6. History of U.S Education

6.1. Rise of the Common School

6.1.1. Free public education.

6.1.2. Education for women and African Americans

6.1.3. Land grant universities established in 1862.

6.2. Democratic-Liberal School

6.2.1. Equality for all!

6.2.2. Ellwood Cubberly and Lawrence A. Cremin

6.2.3. Goals in education are diverse.

7. Sociological Perspectives

7.1. Interactional Theory

7.1.1. Basil Bernstein

7.1.2. Education in the "big picture" Page 120 in the text book

7.1.3. Interactions between student and teachers.

7.2. knowledge and Attitiudes

7.2.1. Academic programs and policies differ in schools which lead to some students having a disadvantage.

7.2.2. Ron Edmunds.

7.2.3. Education can provide a greater sense of well being in ones self.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Student Centered

8.1.1. Cultural Difference Theories

8.1.1.1. John Ogbu

8.1.1.1.1. School success requires African American students to deny their cultural identities and accept the dominant middle class white model that the schools have.

8.1.1.2. Article "It's Not'A Black Thing" Textbook page 441 (Tyson, Darity, Castellino)

8.1.1.2.1. Burden of acting white- Students that are African American and dress differently or are in advanced classes are thought to be "acting white" and frowned upon by their race.

8.1.2. Poverty

8.1.2.1. Causes of poverty are more social and economic than cultural.

8.1.2.2. Poverty related health problems can have major effects on educational achievements.

8.2. School-Centered

8.2.1. Financing

8.2.1.1. Williams v. State of California

8.2.1.1.1. Ensured that children all across the sate would have am adequate education.

8.2.2. Effective School Research

8.2.2.1. Ronald Edmons

8.2.2.1.1. Researchers need to compare the schools in lower income areas and their learning outcomes with those In a higher income area.

8.3. *DIFFERENT LIFE CHANCES BEGIN WITH CLASS BACKGROUND, DIFFERENT SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTS TEACH THE,M TO DREAM A DIFFERENT SET OF DREAMS!!**

9. Educational Reform and School Improvement.

9.1. Teacher Education

9.1.1. Carnegie Report

9.1.1.1. Called for restructuring the schools and the teaching profession.

9.1.1.2. Goals:

9.1.1.2.1. Raising intellectual soundness of teacher education.

9.1.1.2.2. Creating career ladders for teachers

9.1.1.2.3. Developing entry-level requirements

9.1.1.2.4. IMPROVING SCHOOLS!!

9.2. School Finance

9.2.1. In 1990 court ruled that more state funding was needed to serve children in poorer school districts

9.2.1.1. Preschools and renovating school facilities.

9.2.1.2. After school programs and summer programs

9.2.1.3. TECHNOLOGY!!

9.2.2. Campaign for Fiscal Equity (CFE)

9.2.2.1. Challenged New York to provide a "sound basic education"

9.2.2.2. Continues to advocate for the needs of low performing students at the schools with the highest needs.