My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Conservative

1.1.1. Places its primary emphasis on the individual and suggests that individuals have the capacity to earn or not earn their place within a market economy Believes that schools socialize children into the adult roles necessary to the maintenance of social order. Views the social role of school as essential to economic productivity and social stability. Liberal

2. History of U.S Education

2.1. School funding

2.1.1. !785 -1787 land Ordinance Act current school funding comes from state funds, local sales tax, and property tax. Thomas Jefferson believed that school should be free

3. Sociological prospectives

3.1. functional sociologists: asses the interdependence of the social system. They view society as a machine (one part works with another)

3.1.1. International Sociologists: Take up a close view of interactions between students? students and teachers/ teachers Conflict sociologists: Assert that society is not held together by shared values alone, but on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups. 4 Effects of schooling:

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Realism

4.1.1. Essentialism Focus is on reading, writing, and math The classroom is teacher-led with direct instruction

5. Schools as organizations

5.1. Schools are organizations that affect the lives of children and adults who come in contact with them

5.1.1. One must look beyond the classroom to understand the classroom Essential questions: How can schools be distinguished organizationally?

5.2. Sociologist Max Weber asserted that schools are social organizations that are bureaucratic in nature

5.2.1. Willard Waller stated that schools are separate social organizations due to the fact that schools have a definite population, a defied political structure, and represent a central network of social relationships.

5.3. The No Child Left Behind Act 3 qualifications for teachers:

5.3.1. Hold a college degree Full certification in field of study

6. Curriculum and pedagogy

6.1. Traditional viewpoint of curriculum. Views the curriculum as a body of knowledge and ways this knowledge may be taught and assessed.

6.1.1. design curriculum using goals and objectives.

6.2. 4 types of curriculum

6.2.1. Developmentalist curriculum Based on progressive educational practices focuses on the needs and interests of each individual.

6.3. Social Meliorist curriculum

6.3.1. based on the social reconstructionist theory that schools work together to solve fundamental social problems

6.4. Social efficiency curriculum

6.4.1. tasks must directly prepare students for the adult world. based on idealism

6.5. Sociology of curriculum

6.5.1. Functionalist theory role of curriculum is to give students knowledge, language, and values to ensure social stability.

6.6. Conflict Theory

6.6.1. Theorists do not believe that schools teach liberal values such as tolerance and respect

6.7. Curriculum Includes: Topics taught in schools, academic content, a program of studies, a sequence of courses, and a series of experiences undergone by learners in a school.


7. Equality of opportunity

7.1. Basic forms of stratification

7.1.1. Caste Stratification: occurs in agrarian societies where social level is defined in terms of strict criteria such as race or religion Estate Stratification: Occurs agrarian in societies where social level is defined in terms of the hierarchy of family worth Class Stratification: Occurs in industrial societies that define social level in terms of a hierarchy of differential achievement by individuals, especially in economic pursuits.

7.2. The Coleman Report

7.2.1. The 1966 Coleman Report titled "Equality of educational opportunity" fueled debate about academic achievement and the effect of schools on student achievement. This report indicated that student background and socioeconomic status were more important in determining educational outcomes of a student rather than the school itself. Further research by Coleman indicated that the initial findings oversimplified the issues that impact student achievement. It was found that schools do play a significant role in student achievement.


8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Explanations of unequal educational achievement

8.1.1. The Functionalist vision of a "Just society" is one where individual talent and hard work are based on universal principles of evaluation. Functionalists expect that the process of schooling will produce unequal results, but that the results should be due to individual differences between students, not on group differences.

8.1.2. Conflict theorists believe that the role of schooling is to reproduce not eliminate inequality. Interactionist theory suggests that we must understand how people within institutions interact on a daily basis in order to comprehend the factors explaining academic success or failure.

8.2. Explaining race, class, and gender inequalities

8.2.1. Student centered or extra- school explanations of inequalities focus on factors within the school such as peers, family, community, culture, and individual student. School centered or within school explanations focus on factors within the school such as teachers, methods, curriculum.

8.3. Characteristics of effective schools

8.3.1. high expectations for students by teachers strong effective leadership by school administration Accountability processes for both students and teachers.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Two waves of Reform the first 1980's: A Nation at Risk

9.1.1. mainly concerned with accountability and achievement. Resulting in a call for more academic achievement. The second wave: was targeted at the structure and processes of the schools themselves, placing far more control in the hands of local schools, teachers and communities

9.2. Federal involvement in education

9.3. Six Goals

9.3.1. 1. By year 2000 all children will start school ready to learn 2. By year 2000 graduation rate will increase to at least 90 percent 3. By year 2000 students leaving grades 4,8, and 12, having demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter, including reading, math, science, history and geography.