Fishman, The New Linguistic Order

Comprehension Activity for Fishman NLO

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Fishman, The New Linguistic Order by Mind Map: Fishman, The New Linguistic Order


1.1. 1. The quote illustrates the importance of local language since it will make people gain a sense of belonging to their local communities and close attachments with the community's history. Regardless how world becomes globalized, the local language will still be used among local individuals.

1.2. 2. Even though the English globalization influences greatly on local language communities, people still want to tie to with the local historical, traditional, cultural experience. Because those experience help individual develop a sense of belonging, close relationship with their local communities will realize a matter of truth and value. The authenticity is used as a standard for testing the historical value of local communities. For example, Alaska and Northwestern American tried to defend authenticity of their culture by establishing discussion groups in Native American languages on the Internet.

1.3. 3. Those examples demonstrate the prevalence of attempts made by communities of local languages to preserve and standardize their own languages. Those examples also present us with how they standardized their languages, either by the support of government or voluntary campaigns of those communities. Those methods turn out to be more efficient than ever before and people put more effort into it. As the result, there more standardized languages.

1.4. 4. Several examples reveal that local languages could be useful more in diverse aspects, such as education, government and knowledge spreading. In education, Navajo children's reading ability is better than those native speakers. In official organizations, local tongues could help to advertise the necessary knowledge to the public efficiently. In agriculture, the development workers could teach local farmers how to use the correct ways to farming effectively in local languages as well.

1.5. 5. Because English is the first and most commonly understood one in computer network, it remains first place since 80% of the information online is written in English. The subtitle named "" is satirized English everywhere around the world. Even if English as a major international language at the time, but with the time goes, English's state begin to decline.

2. 4. looking ahead

2.1. And English is changing informally and oreally regionalized, since more and more people are learning English as the second or third language; in another words, English are increasingly lost the original idiosyncrasies, and replaced by other national characteristic.

2.2. 2.A comflict between two languages would exist, Fishman gives the example of Soviet era; the conflict between Russian and Moscow causes the government of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania used political strategy to exclude the impact of Moscow.

2.3. Different language had different functions in the society. Different languages can be friendly to each other unless there is language conflicts between them. He used the example that there can be language used with family, language used with co workers and language with bosses. they can be different.

2.4. 4.English has been affected by regionalism, because of the people who learn it as a second languages are not taught by native speakers or the teachers with little connection between native speakers. Fishman predicts that the smallest world languages would stay in a stressful situation between the effect of the neighbor countries and the effect of English. The example of U.S.A supports that U.S.A limited the use of Spanish strictly by opposite the Spanish education and the use of Spanish.

2.5. The purely local languages will foster their own tongues and limit other languages, because they are going to facing the threat of extinction in the next century. And U.S. government decided not to give an official language and let eveyone have the right to choose.

2.6. English will increacingly toward the higher classes, because general classes use regional language to earn profits, for seeking more gains to the higher status they need to learn English. "Even as english is widly learned, it may become even more widely disliked." In another word, if reasonable decrese the local and regional supremacy and the exclusive funtions, English could develop better in a long term; otherwise, it might against the English Globalization in the future.

2.7. In Indonesia, English is commonly used in upper class. however, Bahasa Indonesia is used as the official language because it represents the culture and history of the country. English act as the global language, it spreads widely in Indonesia. Bahasa Indonesia acted as the local language. It is a symbol of the culture.

3. 1. INTRO

3.1. Fisherman thesis: The influence of English will be declined for some reasons in the future, while the role of localization and regionalization are becomming more important.

3.2. background : English occupied essential role in the world, in media, academic, American culture. Most people, organization and company prefer English. The power of English is unpredictable in the world.

3.2.1. Because the globalization of English will encourage other language to resist English. Therefore, in the end

3.3. Main points: 1. The spread of English not only brings a consequence for globalization, but also contributes on it. 2. Because many large language communities are inclined to their own language as the globalization develops, there is no doubt that those communities are planning to achieve the same goal of the globalization. 3. The spread of regional language is increasing based on regional communication, informal market interaction, and migration. 4. Local languages


4.1. 1. According to Fishman the begin of the spread of English started with the British colonization and because of this influence most of the countries continue preserving English as their official language. In contrast, the common perception is that its spread is due to American corporations such as Microsoft and Disney.


4.2.1. MAIN FACTORS: * The growing in INTERNATIONAL TRADE and MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS. *The ever widening reach of AMERICAN MASS MEDIA. *The expanding electronic network created by the INTERNET. *The linguistic impact of American songs, dress, food, sports, and recreation.

4.2.2. LESS VISIBLE FACTORS: *Growing in study in English overseas. *The swelling number of students who go abroad to study English speaking countries.

4.3. 3. Although English SEEMS TO BE highly spread worldwide, it is actually linked to some factors such as social class, age, gender and profession. The REALITY is that although there is a big number of people without English as a mother tongue using English terms or singing English song, it does not mean that they can engage a regular conversation with an English native speaker.

4.4. 4.Fishman mentions the regional interaction-trade is the most useful way to involve in spreading out regional language. The example of North Africa, plenty of people prefer to speak native language (Hausa), because people need to use in regional communication, and informal market. Therefore, local culture is against global language (English). There are also other examples like Chinese, Spanish, and French. Local people need to use those language to communicate with others in local markets and trades.

4.5. 5. According to these examples, we can know that the governments and organizations take actions or produce some policies to spread and defend their regional languages. For instance, French government spends billions of francs every year to support its language and German government funds 78 Gorthe Institutes about German in its country. Muslim organizations use many languages to spread its ideology but they still use Arabic to maintain communications with each others. Moreover, Singapore organized a campaign to promote the spread of Mandarin. These governments and orgnizations make efforts to spread their regional languages on their own initiative. Globalization and their own efforts promote regional languages spread more widely and rapidly.

4.6. 6. In fishman's opinion, the importance of regional languages will increase because much more people who wants to make more profits will intend to go to other countries to develop and regional languages will be basic elements for them to seize opportunities. Furthermore, regional languages will promote many fields of their countries because globalization facilitates the development of regionalization, which push these fields to develop wherever in own regions or in other countries.

4.7. 7. "Do you speak European?" is a subsection, in Fishman text, which says that in Europe there are so many languages. There are a different one for each country and even for each local population. It means that there are not a regional language that can be spoken in whole Europe; therefore, if someone from other continent go to Europe an want to speak one language. That is no possible. This subsection is there because this subsection is about neighbor languages and regional languages. so it is important to make emphasis in how important can be to have a regional language, but also how rich can be to have so many diverse language different to one another from your neighbor countries. The signature at the end of this subsection is FP.