My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. History of Education

1.1. Influential Reform Movement

1.1.1. Equality of Opportunity

1.1.1.1. The "GI" Bill of Rights

1.1.1.1.1. offered 16 million service men and women the opportunity to pursue a higher education.

1.1.1.1.2. The "GI" Bill of rights was opposed and criticized by Robert Maynard Hutchins (University of Chicago) and James Conant (President of Harvard University)

1.1.1.2. The Civil Rights Movement

1.1.1.2.1. Occurred in years following Second World War (!940's-1970's)

1.1.1.2.2. NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) was established in !930's and 1940's. The overthrow of "school segregation" was a major focus point of their efforts.

1.1.1.2.3. Booker T Washington's "Atlanta Compromise Speech" / In 1903 W.E.B. DuBois of Harvard critcized Washington's vocational approach through his published work of "The Souls of Black Folk".

1.2. Historical Interpretation of U.S. Education

1.2.1. The Conservative Interpretation which is supported by Diane Ravitch, E.D. Hirsch Jr., and Allan Bloom.

1.2.1.1. Conservatives point to the failure of "progressive education" to fulfill it's goals WITHOUT sacrificing academic quality.

1.2.1.1.1. Allan Bloom places the blame on the universities for "watering down" the curriculum. Consequence of this is diminished academic excellence.

1.2.1.1.2. Hirsch blames the public schools for "valuing skills over content."

1.2.1.2. In "The Troubled Crusade", Ravitch argued how the thinking of using education to solve "social probelms" has failed. In stead we have witnessed an "erosion of academic excellence.

1.2.1.3. Students know little if anything about their American/ Western heritage. (Loss of Traditional values)

2. Politics of Education

2.1. Conservative Perspective

2.1.1. Derived from the original principles of William Graham Sumner

2.1.1.1. Evolution of society thought promotes that the "Strongest will survive" changes within the natural environment.

2.1.1.1.1. All aspects of social environments are developed around this competition; the primary social principle from the conservative perspective is that achievements are a component of one's ambition and drive to succeed.

2.1.1.2. Sumner's perspective on the evolution of society later sparked the popular evolutionary thoughts of Charles Darwin's "Darwinism."

2.1.2. The Conservative perception of education details that of a traditional vision in that, schools are envisioned as the tool that allows the most talented or hard working individuals to maximize economic and social productivity.

2.1.2.1. How do Conservatives define Educational problems?

2.1.2.1.1. The demand for greater equality has reduced the focus on a higher standardized curriculum: decline of standards.

2.1.2.1.2. The Demand for multicultural education has diminished the preservation of American culture and heritage, thus decreasing the intensity and frequency of traditional values being taught. "Decline of cultural literacy"

2.1.2.1.3. The increasing demand for cultural relativism has caused a decline in the tradtional moral values."Decline of values."

2.1.2.1.4. The demand for individuality and freedom has created a educational system that lacks the ability to discipline effectively. "Decline of authority"

2.1.3. How do conservatives explain the "inequality" of academic success?

2.1.3.1. As correspondent with Darwin's and Sumner's beliefs, academic success is a component directly related to a student's "own level of intelligence, hard work, and initiative."

2.2. Traditional Vision

2.2.1. encompasses the preservation of American heritage, culture, and moral values.

2.2.1.1. Examples of "Traditional" values: Hard work, family unity, and individual initiative.

2.2.2. When looking at the political continuum with left signifying "Radical Perspectives" and the right signifying "Conservative Perspectives"; the traditional view of education aligns with conservative perspectives and right liberal perspectives.

2.2.3. The Conservatives Perspective calls for an educational reform that focuses on Traditional curriculum such as: history, literature, and the canons of Western civilization.

3. The Sociology of Education

3.1. Theoretical Perspectives

3.1.1. Functional

3.1.1.1. Functional sociologists stress "interdependence" of the social system.

3.1.1.1.1. Emile Durkheim supported the "functional perspective." He believed that education in all societies was responsible for creating moral unity.

3.1.1.2. Functionalists believe that highly integrated societies contain schools that socialize students, and sort and select students according to their abilities.

3.1.2. Conflict

3.1.2.1. The Conflict perspective emphasizes struggle. The conflict sociologist views schools as "social battlefields" where conflicts and antagonism ultimately shape the student, and mold him or her for society.

3.1.2.2. There are two ideologies that often mute the struggles.

3.1.2.2.1. The authority and power of school

3.1.2.2.2. The achievement ideology

3.1.2.3. Three supporters of the conflict perspective with slightly different theoretical orientations

3.1.2.3.1. Karl Marx: Believed capitalism should be destroyed and replaced with socialism

3.1.2.3.2. Max Weber: believed that power relations ultimately structured societies BUT "that class differences alone could not capture that complex ways human beings from hierarchies and belief systems that make these hierarchies and belief systems seem just and inevitable."

3.1.2.3.3. Randall Collins: Believed that educational expansion is best explained by status group struggle.

3.1.3. Interactional

3.1.3.1. A critique essentially of the functional and conflict theoretical perspectives

3.1.3.2. Basil Bernstein: "Structural aspects of the educational system and the interactional aspects of the system reflect each other and must be viewed wholistically.

3.2. Effects and Impacts of Schools on Children

3.2.1. Knowledge

3.2.1.1. Generally, the higher the social class background of the student, the higher their achievement level.

3.2.1.2. Research suggests that the more knowledge/education a student receives the more likely they are to engage in social and political affairs.

3.2.1.3. The conclusion is that perhaps greater knowledge can result in greater social participation, theoretically.

3.2.1.3.1. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Political_Participation.aspx

3.2.2. Employment

3.2.2.1. In 1986 approximately 54 % of 8 million college graduates in the United States entered professional and technical jobs.

3.2.2.2. The overall conclusion of how educational schooling impacts employment opportunities is that higher educational achievements correlate with high-status occupations

3.2.2.2.1. Worth noting that job performance was not correlated with education; people learn how to do their jobs AT their jobs.

3.2.3. Mobility

3.2.3.1. Education can impact where "people rise, or go to"

3.2.3.2. "The popular belief that education opnes the doors of opportunity, however, is likely to remain firmly embedded in the American ethos." (pg.123)

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Realism

4.1.1. Generic Notions

4.1.1.1. Contrary to idealism on the notion that "matter exists independent of ideas."

4.1.1.1.1. "A triangle exists whether or not there is thinking human being within range to perceive it." (Realism notion)

4.1.1.1.2. "Truth is perfect and eternal, therefore it cannot be found in the world of matter" (Idealism notion)

4.1.1.2. Concept of ideas being a reflection of natural experiences, which is why Lock called the mind a "blank canvas"

4.1.2. Key Researchers

4.1.2.1. Aristotle, who was a student of Plato. Aristotle and Plato both reasoned the importance of "ideas" but differed in their beliefs of from where ideas originate.

4.1.2.2. Thomas Aquinas during the medieval age formed a branch off based on Aristotle thought. His belief was that God could be understood through reasoning of the scientific world.

4.1.2.3. John Locke is more of a "Modern Realist" in which he founds his beliefs on the mind being a blank canvas.

4.1.2.4. Francis Bacon developed the scientific method of reasoning, which starts with observations that lead the thinker to culminate generalizations.

4.1.2.5. Alfred North Whitehead is a contemporary realist that believed that universe could be described through patterns, specifically mathematical patterns.

4.1.2.6. All researchers have in common a central belief that ideas are a reflection of what is learned from the natural world.

4.1.3. Goals of Education

4.1.3.1. The goal is to understand science in an applicable way that promotes the understanding and development of solutions concerning social dilemmas.

4.1.4. Methods of Instruction

4.1.4.1. Lecture, this method would give the student necessary knowledge to construct evaluations.

4.1.4.2. Questions and answer along with competency based evaluation to ensure the retaining of knowledge being taught to students.

4.1.5. Role of Teacher

4.1.5.1. To enable students to understand science, mathematics, art, and literature in order to deduce logical evaluations.

4.1.6. Curriculum

4.1.6.1. The Basics.

4.1.6.1.1. Science, math, reading, and writing.

4.1.6.1.2. "There is a body of knowledge that is essential for the student to master in order to be a part of society."

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Major Stakeholders for The DeKalb County, Alabama School District

5.1.1. Senators

5.1.1.1. Senator Clay Scofield

5.1.2. House of Representatives

5.1.2.1. U.S. Representative: Robert B. Alderholt

5.1.2.2. State Representative: Becky Nordgren

5.1.3. State Superintendent

5.1.3.1. Dr. Thomas R. Bice

5.1.4. Representatives on state school board

5.1.4.1. Governor Robert J. Bentley

5.1.4.2. Jefferey Newman (Vice President/ District 7)

5.1.4.3. Yvette Richardson (District 4)

5.1.4.4. Matthew S. Brown (District 1)

5.1.4.5. Betty Peters (District 2)

5.1.4.6. Stephanie Bell ( District 3)

5.1.4.7. Ella B. Bell (District 5)

5.1.4.8. Cynthia Sanders McCarty (District 6)

5.1.4.9. Mary Scott Hunter (District 8)

5.1.5. Local Superintendent

5.1.5.1. Mr. Hugh Taylor

5.1.6. Local School Board

5.1.6.1. Terry Wootten

5.1.6.2. Mark Richards

5.1.6.3. Jeff Williams

5.1.6.4. Randy Peppers

5.1.6.5. Matt G. Sharp

5.2. Structure of U.S. Education

5.2.1. Governance

5.2.1.1. Federal government is decentralized in respect to education structure. In the United States there are 50 separate school systems; one for each state.

5.2.1.2. Most U.S. schools are payed for by revenue that is raised by local property taxes.

5.2.2. Organization

5.2.2.1. Schools are organized in elementary, junior high, middle school, and high school systems.

5.2.2.2. children typically enter kindergarten at age 5 and graduate high school by age 18.

5.2.2.3. U.S. Public school systems are very "open." All students are entitled to enroll into public schools and to remain there until they graduate.

5.3. Comparision with the French educational system

5.3.1. Governance

5.3.1.1. Very centralized compared to the United States Educational system. The federal government controls the French educational system all the way down to the classroom.

5.3.2. Types of school systems (Public)

5.3.2.1. School for ordinary people.

5.3.2.2. School for "elite" people.

5.3.2.2.1. a set of examinations are used to separate out the academically gifted from the "not so academically gifted."

5.3.2.2.2. At the top of the system are the "grandes ecoles" which schools the highly gifted academically. These institutions are used to produce the country's governmental and intellectual elite.

5.3.2.3. Highly "stratified."

5.3.2.4. This type of system paves the way for a very competitive educational system.

5.3.2.4.1. The French believe this to be a very meritocratic system.

5.3.3. The objective of the French educational system

5.3.3.1. To produce a small number of highly qualified intellectuals.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. The social efficiency curriculum

6.1.1. This historical curriculum is philosophically related to pragmatic pedagogy.

6.1.2. Differs from the humanist curriculum (which calls for a style of educational uniformity, or common academic curriculum) in that the humanist tradition calls for curriculum to conform to the students.

6.1.2.1. The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education publication in 1918 was a direct opposition to the humanist tradition.

6.1.2.1.1. Created the term "Pedagogical progressiveness" and formed the relationship between school and societal roles and activities.

6.1.3. Some scholars believe this traditional curriculum to be a distortion of John Dewey's work.

6.2. The functionalist theory

6.2.1. conviction that the curriculum should inherently transmit cultural heritage to students in order to prepare them for societal roles.

6.2.1.1. "Thus for functionalists the specific content of the curriculum such as history or literature is less important than the role of schools in teaching students how to learn- a skill vital in an increasingly technocratic society." (p. 292)

6.2.2. This "General functionalist theory" was derived from the work of Emilie Durkheim out of her deep convictions and concerns regarding the social/moral breakdown.

6.2.2.1. "Durkheim argued that the schools had to teach students how to fit into the less cohesive modern world." (p. 291)

6.2.3. The Modern Functionalist Theory was developed by Talcott Parsons and Robert Dreeben to stress educational roles in preparing students for a society that increasingly become more diverse and complex.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Educational Achievement and Attainment

7.1.1. The Condition of Education, is an article published every year documenting data that indicates the American educational system condition.

7.1.1.1. Data reported that achievement increased where parental education was relational.

7.2. Coleman Study Response

7.2.1. A research study conducted by James Coleman that highlighted the relational outcomes between organizational characteristics of schools and student achievement.

7.2.1.1. I think, from what I can gather from the textbook; one of the responses to the Coleman study appears to be a little bit of confusion. The data apparently yielded a startling report that the "where an individual goes to school" has little effect on his or her academic growth. Actually the composition of the student body plays a much larger role.

7.2.1.1.1. The outcome of this assumption led to the justification for busing students between schools and between school districts.

7.2.1.1.2. The policy implication is clearly that poor students should go to school with middle-class students in order to equalize their educational opportunities.

7.2.2. The purpose of this study was to simply identify and give evidence for the gap that exist between the schooling experiences of African American students and white students.

7.2.2.1. From 1973-1986 the reading and mathematics gap between 13 year old African Americans and Hispanics and Whites narrowed then increased from 1986-1999.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Sociological Explnation

8.1.1. The Functionalists hold to a belief system that doesn't focus on family backgrounds but on the differences between students themselves.

8.1.1.1. I found it interesting to note that the functionalists actually expect some educational inequality as far as results are concerned. Again they feel as if these results are to be based on individual differences.

8.1.1.2. They do not believe that the system itself creates the inequality results; rather they believe it is the result of unequal educational opportunities.

8.1.1.2.1. "It is possible that even with equality of opportunity there could be these patterns of unequal results" (ch. 9, pg. 419, para. 1)

8.2. School-centered explanation

8.2.1. Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices

8.2.1.1. Bernstein (1990) suggested that in England schools that were placed in working-class neighborhoods were more likely to have authoritarian teachers; while school sin middle-class communities were more likely to have teachers who practiced student-centered pedagogy.

8.2.1.1.1. Anyon's research in 1980 among schools in the United States of America supported these research findings.

8.2.1.2. The theory is simple in nature, it describes that the type of schooling corresponds to the social class of students.

8.2.1.2.1. Research doesn't necessarily explain why the differences exist or how they affect the academic achievement of students which is one draw-back to this given theory.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School-Business Partnerships

9.1.1. This reform arose out of a deep concern from business leaders regarding the quality of graduates that were entering the work force. They were concerned that the quality being furnished was not sufficient enough to revitalize the U.S. economy.

9.1.1.1. The most well-knonw partnership formed was the Boston Compact in 1982.

9.1.2. The Committee to Support Philadelphia Public schools promised to provide management training to the Philadelphia School District to revitalize and restructure the institution.

9.1.2.1. some partnerships included scholarships for the poorer kids so that they could attend college.

9.2. Full Service and Community Schools

9.2.1. "Another way to attack education inequity is to examine and plan to educate not only the whole child, but also the whole community." (Page 539)

9.2.1.1. These schools were designed to specifically attack "at-risk" neighborhoods , to prevent problems as well as support them.

9.2.2. Full service school primary focus in on meeting the students needs (physically, mentally, emotionally) in a systematic order between school and community services.

9.2.2.1. Schools are servicing as community centers in a neighborhood by providing adult education and health clinics, etc...