My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. 4 prespectives: conservative, liberal, radical, and neo-liberal.

1.2. *Conservative- you pick yourself up and make the best for yourself not relying on others. *Realist-someone has to do the bad jobs why not let the ones who aren't as smart.

1.3. Everyone is responsible for determining their outcome.

1.4. Capitalism and free economies must be kept in check (welfare beneficiaries)

1.5. Problems in education and economy are caused by social disorder and social class issues. Problems in education and economy are caused by social disorder and social class issues.

1.6. When economies are left unregulated unfair wealth opportunities are issued.

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. COLONIAL ERA: *The Old Deluder Satan Law 1647- chastised parents for not attending to their children's "ability to read and understand the principles of religion and capital laws of this country and fined the parents for their children's immodest behavior. *Massachusetts School Law 1647-provided that every town that had "50 households"would appoint one teacher to teach all children to read and write

2.2. AGE OF REFORM: *Right to vote-Only men. (no slaves) *Thomas Jefferson-supported public education. *Horace Mann-lobbied to create the first state board of education. (Created in Massachusetts in 1837) *Mount Holyoke Seminary 1837- women's college. Had same requirements for women as men. *First to publicly admit women was University of Iowa in 1856.

2.3. URBANIZATION AND THE PROGRESSIVE IMPETUS: *Industrial revolution caused the need for educated workers. *The gap between the rich and poor widened *Social classes were divided even more due to large amounts of uneducated people.

2.3.1. *John Dewey- Father of Modern Education. He emphasized the needs of the individual to create a better society-PROGRESSIVISM *Dewey's philosophy is the reason we have vocational schools *Schools came back into focus, due to health, hygiene, and social skills.

2.4. THE COMMITTEE OF TEN: *was created by the National Education Association, which was chaired by Harvard University president Charles Elliot

2.4.1. COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATION FOR HIGH SCHOOL IN 1918: -Health, Command of fundamental processes, Worthy home membership, vocation, citizenship, worthy use of leisure, ethical character.

2.5. THE DILEMMA: *4 Themes for High School Purposes in 1875 -Tension between classical subjects such as Latin and Greek versus science and math. -College entrance requirements due to so many disparities in entrance requirements. -High School students- be prepared for life not college - All students-follow the same course of study regardless of need for further education. -The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education

2.6. POST WORLD WAR II 1945-1980: *Progressive vs. Traditional *Demands required more technical innovations and focused on social mobility. *The battle- standards of an education versus the educational opportunity for all

2.6.1. College student movement for civil rights: -Univeristy of Michigaam -University of California at Berkeley -San Francisco State University -Kent State University

2.6.1.1. Kent State University-MAY 4,1970-students protest the Vietnam War. National Guard was called with Live Ammunition. 4 students killed.

2.6.2. Impact of the GI Bill: Tuition, Books, and Fees paid for.

2.6.2.1. *PLESSY VS. FERGUSON 1896-Public facilities could seperate races but they had to have equal facilities. *BROWN VS. TOPEKA B.O.E. 1954-

2.6.2.2. *CIVIL RIGHTS ACT 1963- *DESEGREGATION WAS MAIN FOCUS. SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES OPENED DOORS FOR ALL.

2.7. 1980'S TO PRESENT DAY: *Sputnik and the space race influence- Main influences on math and sciences back in school *1957-1960's emphasis on excellence *Mid 60's emphasis on individual needs due to Civil Rights Act of 63' *Elem/Secondary Edu. Act 1965- Special Ed came into act.

2.7.1. REFORMS OF STANDARDS ERA: *NATION AT RISK (REAGAN) *GOALS 2000 (CLINTON) *NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND (BUSH0 *RACE TO THE TOP (OBAMA)

2.7.1.1. Due to the Strict Standard Reforms these things are now a problem: Teaching to the Test to Survive Failing Schools Charter Schools Privatization of School

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. *The Societal level includes the most general levels of society such as its political and economic systems, level of development, and system of social stratification. *The institutional level includes family, schools, churches, business, government and media. *The Interpersonal includes all the processes, symbols interactions within such organizations such as face to face interactions, gestures and rituals. *The Intrapsychic which includes the individual thoughts, beliefs, values and feelings which are shaped by societies institutions.

3.2. Relation between schools and society

3.2.1. Schools are agents to cultural social transmission

3.2.2. Schools select students for educational mobility.

3.2.3. Schools stratify students into tracks by curricular placements which results in how they are successful.

3.2.4. Theoretical Perspectives include; Functional Theories, Conflict Theories, Interactional Theories.

3.2.4.1. *Functional poses that society is best when a consensus rules. Conflict poses that influential groups impose their will on subordinate groups. *Interactional poses that society develops as a result of interactions between students and teachers.

3.2.5. Where you attend school can predict your success over life

3.2.5.1. College degrees are primarily status symbols and do not indicate actual achievement.

3.2.6. Conflict- schools are oppressive and students are rebellious. They are forced to attend.

3.3. Effects of schooling on individuals

3.3.1. Higher social classs= higher level of educational achievement

3.3.2. Academically oriented schools tend to have higher level of student achievement

3.3.3. More education=better jobs

3.3.4. Education=great equalizer in status race

3.3.5. Poor and rich people see no effect on their social status as a result of their education attainment.

3.3.6. Competition is not fair. Winners win with exceptions and losers are dropped from the competition.

3.3.7. Not all students study the same curriculum and the curriculum determines who goes to college.

3.3.8. Self-fulfilling prophecy has a direct impact on student success.

3.4. Highly Effective School Characteristics

3.4.1. Strong Leadership

3.4.2. Safe environement

3.4.3. Instruction that focus on student achievement

3.4.4. Teachers believe that all students can learn

3.4.5. Constant review of student progress

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Student Centered

4.2. Teacher Centered

4.2.1. LOVE centered

4.3. *Metaphysics-what is real? *Ethics-what is value? *Aesthetics-what is beauty? *Epistemology-How do we know? *Logic-How do we reason? *Political Philosophies-How should societies be governed?

4.4. Essentialism

4.4.1. emphasis on acedemics

4.4.2. promotion is based on mastering a subject

4.4.3. curriculum is based on basic subjects

4.4.4. curriculum is designed by administration

4.4.5. teaching across the curriculum

4.5. Realism

4.5.1. Material world is real adn exists without anyome preceiving

4.5.2. the real world exists before ideas exist

4.5.3. Aristotle develop a system of logical thinking

4.5.4. John Locke was a realist

4.5.4.1. he says that until something is put into your mind it is a blank slate. When your born there is nothing in your mind.

4.5.5. Goal of Education

4.5.5.1. Understand the real world then apply science and logic to solve problems

4.5.6. Role of the teacher

4.5.6.1. Present ideas in a clear and consistent manner

4.5.6.2. Enable students to examine from an objective approach

4.5.7. Methods of Instruction

4.5.7.1. Lecture

4.5.7.2. Question and Answer

4.5.7.3. Discussion

4.5.8. Curriculum;

4.5.8.1. Consist of a basic body of knowledge

4.6. Pragmatism

4.6.1. Philosophies that were

4.6.1.1. born from Pragmatism

4.6.1.2. Progressivism – John Dewey

4.6.1.3. Social Reconstructionism – George Counts,

4.6.2. The Goal of Education

4.6.2.1. Provide students with the knowledge to improve society.

4.6.3. Role of the Teacher –

4.6.3.1. facilitator of learning activities

4.6.4. Methods of Instruction –

4.6.4.1. learn individually as well as in groups.

4.6.5. Curriculum

4.6.6. Basics

4.6.6.1. Learning through experience (experiential learning

4.6.6.2. Pragmatism encourages people to find processes that work to achieve their desired outcome.

4.6.6.3. The approach to learning is by scientific inquiry.

4.6.6.4. “What is practical has meaning and value”

4.7. Progressivism

4.7.1. Education based on needs of student

4.7.2. Hands on learning as well as text book learning

4.7.3. Teaching through field trips and fun

4.7.4. emphasis on natural and social sciences

4.7.5. grouping by interest and abilities

4.7.6. Experimental learning

4.8. Existentialism and Phenomology

4.8.1. Basics

4.8.1.1. We are who we are as a result of our decisions

4.8.1.2. Perception of the world is based on one’s ability to make sense of it.

4.8.1.3. Goal of Education=focus is on the individual, cognitively and affectively.

4.8.1.4. Students must become “wide awake”

4.8.1.5. Students should be exposed to the harsh and good realities of the world.

4.9. Neo-Marxism

4.9.1. engage student s to critically examine the world which is similar to “wide wakeness”.

4.9.2. Basics

4.9.2.1. The purpose of education in a capitalist society is to perpetuate the ideology of the dominant class.

4.9.2.2. Neo-Marxist – a capitalist society should be economically proficient to allow its citizens to live productive and decent lives.

4.9.2.3. Goal of Education – schools perpetuate the ideology of the dominant society and legitimize it to all other groups.

4.9.2.4. Education enables individuals to understand the weaknesses of the dominant society and propose alternatives.

4.9.3. Teachers must have a command of how the curriculum can be socially manipulated

4.10. Post Modernist and Critical Theory

4.10.1. Basics

4.10.1.1. The Goal of Education is to explore differences and to explore possibilities that may seem inherently impossible.

4.10.1.2. Working together to achieve balance and equity through democratic transformation.

4.10.1.3. Role of the Teacher – an agent of change

4.10.1.4. Teachers, students, communities are all involved in the process of education.

4.10.1.5. Schools and curriculum are agents of change.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. The US Constitution does not provide for education

5.2. Centralization

5.2.1. 55 mil. students are educated at the cost of $650 billion

5.2.2. US is most DECENTRALIZED

5.3. Structure

5.3.1. Large states are multiracia

5.3.2. 10 States have no minority

5.3.3. 16 states have less than 50% white.

5.4. Private Schools

5.4.1. most located east and west coast

5.4.2. school choice has a significant credibility

5.5. In other countries individuals go through rigorous academic rites of passage. This design separates those that can and those that cannot as well as those that have and those that have not.

5.6. Germany

5.6.1. Sorted at an early age to be tracked into their appropriate career.

5.7. School Processes and Cultures

5.7.1. schools are seperate social organizations because:

5.7.1.1. Definitive populations

5.7.1.2. Political structures

5.7.1.3. represent a multitude of social clicks

5.7.1.4. prevailed by the "we feeling"

5.7.1.5. have own speical culture

5.7.2. conflicts

5.7.2.1. teachers are in conflict with students **Curriculum v. social goals for students**

5.7.2.2. administrators and teachers are in conflict **structure v. teaching**

5.7.2.3. Communities in conflict with administration

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. What is taught and how do we teach it?

6.1.1. Idealists- teach the great works of mankind

6.1.2. Conservatist -return to a humanist foundation

6.1.2.1. 1980’s and 1990’s say we should teach what is fundamentally basic to a common culture.

6.1.2.2. social efficiency has diluted the curriculum to the point that it has lost the purpose of transmitting one common culture.

6.1.3. Teach math, science, reading, history, foreign languages and emphasize the influence of western civilization.

6.1.4. Social Efficiency Curriculum advocates-should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive.

6.1.4.1. Social Efficiency became the cornerstone of Progressivism

6.1.4.2. Different people need to be taught different ways

6.1.5. Social meliorists – reform society through schools also known as social reconstruction

6.1.5.1. Communities reflect what is important to them as a society.

6.1.5.2. The social class composition of the school and community have determined what is of value in the curriculum

6.2. Other influences on the curriculum

6.2.1. Evolutionists

6.2.2. Creationists

6.2.3. Science and math

6.2.4. Nation at Risk

6.2.5. No Child Left Behind

6.2.6. Race To The Top

6.3. Formal curriculum – what is cognitively taught (subjects we teach) Math Science etc

6.4. Informal or Hidden curriculum – taught but not obvious to sight Character ED.

6.5. Null curriculum – what is not taught but is learned (values of the community) Sports

6.6. Influences

6.6.1. Political influences

6.6.2. Cultural influences

6.6.3. Special interests

6.6.4. Societies’ influences

6.6.5. Social Influences

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Social stratification is a structural characteristic of societies.

7.1.1. Caste- a persons’ social level is determined by race or religion.

7.1.2. Estate systems – a persons’ social level is determined by family value and worth.

7.1.3. Class systems – a persons’ worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement.

7.2. Class

7.2.1. Schools represent the middle and upper class. Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance

7.3. Race

7.3.1. Race has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves.

7.3.2. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans.

7.4. Gender

7.4.1. In the last twenty years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment. Disparities still exist in education and job salaries.

7.5. The Coleman Study 1966

7.5.1. Coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools. As a result lower class students should attend schools with the middle and upper class to improve their educational success.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Functionalist Theorists support the idea that each students’ success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed.

8.2. Conflict Theorists support the idea that student success is affected by their environment.

8.3. Interactionists Theorists support that student success is determined by a combination of factors such as family, social class schools and environment.

8.4. Student-centered factors such as family, peer group, community, culture and the student.

8.5. School-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate and teacher expectations.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Right to vote was restricted to men, not including slaves and the emotionally disturbed.

9.2. Struggle for Free Public Education was led by Horace Mann of Massachusetts. He lobbied to create the first state board of education.

9.3. *Thomas Jefferson supported public education. *Public Education was for public stability and social mobility