My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Randall Collins said educational expansion is best explained by status group struggle. He said that educational credentials, such as a college degree are just status symbols rather than indicators of actual achievement. In my opinion, a college degree is something worked for, some harder than others.

2. Politics of Education

2.1. John Dewey

2.2. Franklin Delano Roosevelt

2.3. John Maynard Keynes

2.4. Liberal

2.5. Supporting Staff

2.6. Vision of Education

2.6.1. Traditional

2.6.2. believes hardwork, family unity, individual initiative necessary to essential development of individual potential to democratic society.

2.6.3. schools should pass on best of what was

2.6.4. Progressives view as central to solving current problems.

2.6.5. In a political continuum the traditional view overlaps with conservative views.

2.6.6. Because they are sometimes without clear definition, terminology may overlap and be confused.

3. Philosophy of Education subnodes from Exploring Education, An Introduction to the Foundations of Education

3.1. Pragmatism is a philosophy based on working to achieve a desired result through the use of ones senses and verifying them through the natural world. Emphasis is placed on environment and experience. using instrumentalism and experimentalism to achieve progressive education. For me, personally, this philosophy holds true in educating children with special needs, especially my son, who has autism. It has been sincerely a "back to nature" journey to break down communication and education in the simplest forms and through various developmental means, find what works with him to achieve speech and communication over the last 18 years. It is my experiences with him that I want to bring to my classroom.

3.2. Key researchers include George Sanders Pierce, William James, John Dewey, Frances Bacon, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. George Sanders Pierce and William James used the Biblical phrase "By their fruits ye shall know them." to describe pragmatism. John Dewey said it was interaction between the organism and its environment. He said children could learn both experimentally as well as from books. Francis Bacon asked if the results resolved the problem. John Locke believed the mind was a blank tablet and that one acquired knowledge through one's senses. Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed people were naturally good and society corrupted them. He though people should return to nature and work on environment and experience.

3.3. Dewey's vision stressed school as the place where ideas could be implemented, challenged and restructured with the goal of providing students with knowledge of how to improve social order. He said schools should balance the needs of society and community with the needs of the individual Dewey's vision was to integrate children into a democratic society where cooperation and community are the desired end. His vision of the primary role of education was growth leading to more growth. All children, including those with special needs should have a desired place in society during and after completing elementary and high school. By learning each child's strengths and interests, community programs can be developed to support the needs of every child.

3.4. The role of the teacher, according to the text, is no longer as an authoritarian, but as a facilitator, encouraging suggestions, questions, and helps plan and implement the course of study and writing the curriculum and must have a command of several disciplines in order to create and implement the curriculum. It is my hope that my personal experience with my own children as well as working as a substitute teacher will help me as a teacher.

3.5. Dewey proposed that children learn both individually and in groups. He said they should ask questions about what they wanted to know. He said field trips and projects should be part of learning. He abandoned formal instruction and traditional blocks of time with disciplined instruction. He used tables and chairs so children could be grouped. Instead of using memorization, he used individualized study, problem solving and project methods. Though memorization may be included in today's curriculum, it important to use group and individual work as well as various other methods of instruction. Not all children learn the same way and every child should have opportunity to succeed in school.

3.6. Progressive education involved working from the know to the unknown by use of expanding environments. Curriculum should include the needs and interests of the child and change as they do and be based on imagination and intuition. In my opinion, education should be flexible to adjust with the student as he progresses from elementary into and through high school. Many children can be identified in elementary school, who are not college candidates and should have programs developed to support their wants and needs so that as they complete high school they can prepare to join society.

4. Schools as Organizations

4.1. According to our text, Exploring Education by Alan R. Sadovnik, Peter W. Cookson, Jr. and Susan F. Semel, School processes are the way school cultures are created and maintained. This includes authority structures and signivicance of bureaucracy.

4.2. The five structures of U. S. Education include Governance, Size and degree of Centralization, Student Composition, Degree of "Openness", and Private Schools, according to Exploring Education text.

4.3. In the United States, Governance means the states control the school systems. Alabama's Governor is Robert Bentley. State Senators are Richard Shelby and Jeff Sessions, State Representatives are Mike Hubbard for District 79 and Victor Gaston, Speaker Pro Tempore House District 100, State Superintendent of Education is Thomas Bice, State Education Representative is Mary Scott Hunter for District 8, Dekalb County Superintendent is Hugh Taylor. Dekalb County School Board includes Matt Sharp, Chairman, Jeff Williams, Vice Chairman, with members Randy Peppers, Mark Richards, and Terry Wooten.

4.3.1. Great Britain school system in comparison to the United States, has several differences. Schooling was the responsibility of parents. In the beginning, all schools were private. Wealthy families hired tutors, while poor children had no schooling or attended charity schools. Eventually legislation was passed to allow free public primary and secondary education. Reform acts attempted to privatizing public education in 1980's. Schools in this region have become more multiracial and multi-ethnic.

4.3.2. Schools are separate social organizations because they have definite population, have clearly defined political structure, arising from social interaction characteristics of the school and influenced by numerous minor processes of interaction. They represent the central link of a network of social relationships. They spread throughout it's parts a "we feeling." They have a culture that is their own.

4.3.3. Bureaucracies are characterized by explicit rules and regulations that promote predictability and regularity in decision-making and minimize the significance of personal relationships. Rules of procedure are designed to enforce fairness. They can become so complex, that they suppress independent, self-reliance, spontaneity and initiative and creativity, required for learning.

5. History of U.S. Education

5.1. Most influential: Rise of the Common School

5.1.1. Project specifications

5.1.2. End User requirements

5.1.3. Action points sign-off

5.2. Horace Mann argued for free public elementary schools.

5.2.1. Define actions as necessary

5.3. Emma Hart Willard opened the Troy Female Seminary in Troy, New York

6. Sociological Perspectives

6.1. Schedule

6.2. Budget

6.3. Resources

6.4. Delays

7. Curricullum and Pedagogy

7.1. Historical Curriculum Theory of Social Efficiency developed out of mass public secondary education. It offered differentiated curriculum, scientific management of schools and curriculum, standardized testing for placement in ability groups. It provided grouping of students based on needs and aspirations, where they could receive different types of schooling, based on individualized need and flexibility.

7.1.1. Pedagogical progressivism stressed the relationship between the school curriculum and fitted to prepare students for diverse places in society. Emphasis was on efficiency, time on task, and a social division of labor involving division of knowledge in defined areas and defined goals and objectives and based on students abilities and performance on standardized tests. At the elementary level, intelligence tests and reading tests were used to assign students to ability groups and classes. At secondary level standardized tests as well as school achievement were used to place students into different curriculum tracts.

7.1.2. Cultural relevant pedagogy refers to a component of multicultural education where characteristics of successful teachers such as having high self-esteem, a high regard for others, seeing themselves as part of the community, believing that all students can succeed, helping students make connection between their community , national and global identities; and seeing teaching as "pulling out knowledge."

7.1.3. Curriculum stratification is one form of differentiation in United States schools. This includes grouping students by ability. It begins at the elementary level with reading and math within the same classroom and extended into upper elementary and middle school levels with separate classes with same curriculum but at different levels. These levels are often related to different curricula and different abilities and groups at the high school level.

7.1.4. Formal, informal, and hidden curriculum as defined by our Exploring Education text, is as follows. Formal curriculum is subject matter to be learned. Informal or hidden curriculum includes what is taught to students trough rules and messages as well as what is left out of formal curriculum. The pluralist model argues that the political system in the United States is not controlled by any one group, but decisions are made through the input of many groups, each attempting to exercise influence and control. The political elite model argues that a small number of powerful groups dominate the political landscape and have disproportionate control over political decision-making.

7.2. Sociological curriculum theory of functionalism believed the role of schools was to include children into existing society. Students would be given knowledge, language and values to ensure social stability. Schools were to teach students to fit into society, and the role of schools stressed preparing students for this increasingly complex role. The curriculum had to change to meet the new requirements of the modern world. Schools moved away from teaching learning through memorization to teaching students how to learn. Individuals were rewarded based on achievement and competence according to individual characteristics. Schools were to teach normal subjects and knowledge required for maintenance and development of society along with behaviors and attitudes required in the workplace.

7.3. How Curriculum is Taught is important because it can make the difference between learning the material or not learning it. The ability to teach something without required knowledge of subject matter is equally problematic. The process of teaching is an interdependent one, each being necessary.

8. Equality of Opportunity

8.1. According to our text, Exploring Education, An Introduction to the Foundations of Education, 4th Edition, despite data provided by the Scholastic Aptitude Test, African-American and Hispanic-American students lag behind white students in educational achievement and attainment.

8.1.1. Females out perform male students.

8.1.2. Race, ethnic and gender differences along with control for independent effects of social class, educational achievement and attainment are not included in this data collected as The Condition of Education.

8.2. Special Needs children were supposed to be protected under the Education of All Handicapped Children Law which had six principles: 1) the right to access public education programs, 2) individualized services, 3) learning in a "least restrictive environment", 4) services should be broad and have a set of procedures for finding out which services are needed, 5) guidelines for identifying a disability, 6) state and local responsibilities.

8.2.1. Regular Education Initiative said that children with disabilities should be included into regular general education classrooms.

8.2.2. Not all students benefit from inclusion, so self-contained classrooms should be created to provide these children educational opportunities.

8.3. The Coleman Study attempted to determine if private schools were more beneficial to minority students. The 1966 study said that the differences in schools did not have a significant outcome on student learning. The 1982 study said private schools placed more emphasis on learning and discipline. The last response said that "there must be an end to the biases that favor white and middle-class students."

8.3.1. In my opinion, some schools do offer more beneficial tools and technology and better skilled teachers. Private schools as well as city school systems often have more funding for educational equipment and materials as well as special classes such as art, physical education, sports, and music programs. County school systems are often left out because funding doesn't exist.

8.3.2. Minority students should be given opportunities as white children. These children should not be punished because their parents or grandparents moved to another country. They should be encouraged to learn about their new country and embrace our culture, laws and freedoms.

9. Educational Inequality

9.1. From Exploring Education text, the authors detail sociological theories of education that are "concerned about the existence of profound and persistent inequalities from different vantage points."

9.2. Functionalists said roles of schools was to be a selection house for sorting out "brightest individuals, regardless of family background."

9.3. Functionalists believed that there was a direct "relationship between family background and educational outcomes."

9.4. Functionalists believe that "unequal educational outcomes are the result of unequal educational opportunities."

9.5. Functionalists sought to "understand the sources of educational inequality to do away with it and the "barriers to educational success and provide a fair chance to complete in the educational marketplace."

9.6. Functionalist "perspective was the foundation of the liberal educational policy in the United states since the 1960s."

9.7. School centered explanation included Genetic differences.

9.7.1. "Biological explanations of human behavior are viewed as limited because social scientists believe that environmental and social factors are largely responsible for human behavior."

9.7.2. "Recent advances in the understanding of mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, however, suggest that there may be biochemical and genetic causes."

9.7.3. Differences in intelligence in school performance are noted due to genetic differences.

9.7.4. Arthur Jensen, wrote in his Harvard Educational Review, that "compensatory programs were doomed to fail because they were aimed at changing social and environmental factors, when the root of the problem was biological."

9.7.5. "Jensen argued that African-Americans were less intelligent than whites and therefore do less well in school, where intelligence is an important component of educational success."

9.7.6. Hurn "argued that there was no persuasive evidence that social class and racial differences in intelligence are due to genetic factors. These differences are due in part to the cultural bias of IQ tests questions."

10. Historical Interpretation of the U.S. Education

10.1. Democratic Liberal School

10.1.1. school system committed to equal opportunity for all

10.1.2. viewed schools as elite institutions

10.1.3. as more students from different backgrounds went to school for longer periods of time, the goals of education became more numerous

11. Sociology of Education from Exploring Education, an introduction to the foundations of education, 4th edition

11.1. Theoretical perspective concerning relationship between schools and society

11.1.1. Children learn social skills at church, school and in the community.

11.1.2. Emile Durkheim says moral values were the foundation of society. In my opinion, moral values begin in the home, and are shaped by society's view.

11.1.3. Karl Marx believed that the class system separated workers from their benefits. In my opinion, in Marx's day, this may be true, however, in today's society, if you work hard enough, you can have a better job, thus giving your higher income and a better life.

11.1.4. Bowles and Gintis believed there was a direct correspondence between the organization of schools and the organization of society and until society is changed, their is little hope of real school reform. I believe that within schools there exists social groups. These groups may or may not be related to social standing. More likely they are the result of sports or associations within school or society.

11.1.5. Max Weber believed class differences alone could not capture the ways humans formed hierarchies and belief systems that make them seem just and inevitable. I agree. It is within society and at home, we are taught values and behaviors. It is up to us if we decide to follow and adapt them.

11.1.6. We should analyze how families speak. Dialect in higher class families is much better articulated than in lower class families. This might attribute to the education one receives and strives for in their future.

11.1.7. Willard Waller said schools would erupt into anarchy, models of school organization and only disguise the inherit tension that pervades the schooling process.

11.2. Willard Waller said schools would erupt into anarchy models of school organization and only disguise the inherit tension that pervades the schooling process.

11.3. Effects of schooling on individuals that you think have the greatest impact on students

11.3.1. The better education we receive, the more likely we are to read books, and be involved in politics and have better paying jobs.

11.3.2. Having an education makes you feel better about yourself.

11.3.3. According to the text, generally it is found, ,that the higher the social class background of the student, the higher his or her achievement level.. In my opinion, this is generally true, but not always the case. I know many who have achieved higher education who come from lower income middle class and lead quite successful lives.

12. Educational Reform and School Improvement

12.1. One school-based reform is School -to-work programs

12.1.1. School-to-work programs intended to provide non-college bound students skills needed for work and stressed work-based learning.

12.1.2. "In 1994, President Clinton signed the School-to-work Opportunities Act which provided money for states and local partnerships to develop these systems."

12.1.3. Many states worked together to create a system for America's youth. Each state was to provide students with "a relevant education, skills and valued credentials."

12.1.4. "Three core elements each system was to have were school-based learning, work-based learning and connecting activities."

12.1.5. "Although they were well intentioned, these programs often failed to fulfill their promise."

12.1.6. "The vocational education remains a second-class educational tract, which often does not equip students with a sound liberal arts foundation and is not adequately connected to career opportunities."

12.2. One societal reform is Connecting School, Community and Society

12.2.1. "Research conducted over a 20-year period by the Consortium for Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago demonstrates a combination of school, community and societal level reforms are necessary to reduce the achievement gap.

12.2.2. Essential supports include leadership as the driver for change, parent-community ties, professional capacity, student-centered learning climate, instructional guidance.

12.2.3. "These supports are most needed and difficult to implement in the highest poverty schools and that educational reforms must include policies aimed at the amelioration of the effects of poverty."

12.2.4. "Although federal, state and local reforms have resulted in some improvement in achievement, critics have pointed out that U.S. education works well for children from higher socioeconomic backgrounds and exceptionally poorly for those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds."

12.2.5. "Evidence does not overwhelmingly support the claims of advocates in school choice and charter school programs to reduce educational inequality."

12.2.6. "In The Flat World and Education: How America's Commitment to Equity Will Determine Our Future, Linda Darling-Hammond outlines these five key elements needed to reform education: Meaningful learning goals, intelligent, reciprocal accountability systems, equitable and adequate resources, strong professional standards and supports and schools organized for student and teacher learning."