My Foundations of education

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My Foundations of education by Mind Map: My Foundations of education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Radical Prerspective

1.1.1. 1.

1.1.2. The radical perspective do not believe that free market capitalism is the best form of economic organization.

1.1.3. Radicals believe that the capitalist system is central to the U.S. social problems

1.1.4. The radical perspective believes that social problems are structural in nature.

1.2. Progressive Vision

1.2.1. View schools as central to solving problems

1.2.2. A vehicle for upward mobility

1.2.3. Progressives believe the schools should be part of the steady progress to make things better

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Education for Woman and African-Americans

2.1.1. In 1821, Emma Hart Willard opened the Troy Female Seminary in Troy, New York.

2.1.2. In 1833, Oberlin Collegiate Institute in Ohio opened its doors to women as well as African Americans.

2.1.3. In 1868, the Freedom's Bureau helped to establish historically Black Colleges, including Howard University in Washington, D.C., and Hampton Institute in Virginia.

2.2. The Democratic-Liberal School

2.2.1. Democratic-liberals believe that the history of U.S. education involves the progressive evolution.

2.2.2. Lawrence A. Cremin,, in his three-volume history of U.S. education(1972, 1980, 1988) and in a study of the Progressive Era portrays the evolution of U.S. education.

2.2.3. Democratic-liberals believe that the U.S. educational system must continue to move closer to each, without sacrificing one or the other too dramatically

3. Sociological Perspectives

4. Schools as Organizations

4.1. District 8

4.2. State Senator- Richard Shelby

4.3. State Representative- Governor Robert J. Bently

4.4. Local Superintendent- Troy Holiday

4.5. Comparison of another Country's Education Sysyem

4.5.1. Education in the United States is fundamentally inclusive. Other educational systems are not as inclusive

4.5.2. France is highly centralized educational system compared to the system in the United States.

4.5.3. The children of wealthy families had private tutors, while the poor children received no education.

5. Curriculum and Pedagogy

5.1. Humanist Curriculum

5.1.1. Reflects the idealist philosophy that knowledge of the traditional liberal arts is the cornerstone of an educated citizenry.

5.1.2. Purpose of education is to present to students the best of what has been thought and written .

5.1.3. Traditionally this curriculum focused on the Western heritage.

5.2. Modern Functionalist Theory

5.3. Developed in the United States through the works of Talcott Parsons (1959) and Robert Dreeben (1968).

5.4. This society according to functionalists, is a democratic, meritocratic, and expert in society.

5.5. Believed that schools teach the general values and norms.

6. Equality of Opportunity

6.1. Students with Special Needs

6.2. Beginning in the late 1960s, parents of children with special needs began to put pressure on the educational system to serve their children more appropriately and effectively.

6.3. In 1975,Congress passed the Education for ALL Handicapped Children Law.

6.4. In the late 1980s,critics of special education pushed the regular education initiative, which called for mainstreaming children with disabilities into regular classes.

6.5. The Coleman Study

6.6. James Coleman received an extremely large grant to study the relationship between the organizational characteristics of schools and student achievement.

6.7. The motivation behind this grant was to demonstrate that African American students and white students had fundamentally different schooling experiences.

6.8. Coleman's findings caused a tremendous controversy.

7. Educational Inequality

7.1. Functionalists

7.1.1. Functionalists believed that the role of schools is to provide a fair and meritocratic selection process for sorting out the best and brightest individuals, regardless of family background

7.1.2. The functionalist vision of a just society is one where individual talent and hard work based on universal principles of evaluation are more important than ascriptive characteristics based on particularistic methods of evaluation.

7.1.3. Functionalists expect that the schooling process will produce unequal results,but these results ought to be based on individual differences between students, not on group differences.

7.2. Generic Differences

7.3. Generic or biological are the most controversial student-centered explination.

7.4. Recent advances in the understanding of mental illness such as schizophrenia, however suggest that there maybe biochemical and generic causes.

7.5. The argument that unequal educational performances by working class and non white students is due to genetic differences.

8. Education Reform

8.1. Charter Schools

8.2. Charter schools are public schools that are free from many of the regulations applied to traditional public schools, and in return are held accountable for student performance.

8.3. The ''charter" itself is a performance contract that details the schools's missions, program, goals,students served, methods of assessment, and ways to measure success.

8.4. As a public school, a charter school is paid for with tax dollars ( no tuition charges) and must be open to all students in the school district.

8.5. School Finance Reform

8.6. The court ruled in 1990, stating that more funding was needed to serve the children in the poorer school districts.

8.7. In 1998, the state was required to implement a package of supplemental programs, including preschool, as well as a plan to renovate urban school facilities.

8.8. The Education Law Center in its legal challenge argued that the new formula would take necessary funding away from the urban districts. School finances researches are currently studying the law's effects.

9. Philosophy of Education

9.1. Pragmatism

9.2. Generic Notation-children were active, organic beings, growing and changing, and required a course of study that would reflect their particular stages of development.

9.3. Key Researchers- pragmatism's roots, as well as modern realism's roots, may be traced to English philosopher and scientist, Frances Bacon (1561-1626)

9.4. Goal of Education- John Dewey believed that school should provide "conjoint, communicated experience and that it should function as a democratic society.

9.5. Role of the Teacher- In a progressive setting, the teacher is no longer the authoritarian figure. Rather the teacher assumes the peripheral position of facilitator. The teacher also writes the curriculum, and must have a command of several disciplines in order to create and implement curriculum.

9.6. Methods of Instruction- Dewey proposed that children learn both individually and in groups. Children should start their mode of inquiry by posing questions about what they know. Formal instruction was abandoned.

9.7. Curriculum- Progressive schools generally followed Dewey's notation of a core curriculum or an integrated curriculum. Progressive educators support starting with contemporary problems and then working from the known to the unknown.