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Chapt. 6: Chemical
Equilibrium
by Terrence Oas
# Chapt. 6: Chemical
Equilibrium

## The Equilibrium Condition

## The Equilibrium Constant

## Equilibrium Expressions
Involving Pressures

## The Concept of Activity

## Heterogeneous Equilibria

## Applications of the
Equilibrium Constant

## Solving Equilibrium Problems

## Le Châtelier's Principle

## Equilibria Involving Real Gases

## Equilibria are dynamic but may be so slow that []s appear not to change

## K is meaningful only at
equilibrium

## Activity is a way to compare the amount
of a reactant or product to their standard
state and make K unit-less

## Partial pressures sum to total
pressure

## Acitivity of pure solid or liquid = 1

## Q describes the position of a rxn not necessarily at equilibrium

## ICE tables help organize equilibrium problems

## Try to make x in the ICE table
small. This simplifies the math!

## You can do "math" with chemical equations

## "Stress" on an equilibrium shifts reaction in
direction that minimizes change

## Activity coefficients correct for interactions between species

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How a reaction reaches equilibrium

Characteristics of chemical equilibrium

Equilibria are dynamic

Law of mass action

Characteristics of the equilibrium expression

Equilibria in ammonia synthesis

Equilibrium position

Ideal gas law

Equilibrium partial pressures

Kp vs. K

The reference state

For a gas, 1 atm

Definition of activity

Phases: gas, solid, liquid

Heterogeneous Equilibria: between multiple phases

Equilibrium constant for heterogeneous equilibria

Activity of pure phases (solids or liquids)

Predictions based on the equilibrium constant

Extent of reaction

Reaction quotient (Q)

Calculating equilibrium pressures and concentrations

Effect of a change in conditions on equilibria

Effect of a change in concentration

Effect of a change in pressure

Non-ideality

How to correct Kp for non-ideality

Can't be = 0 or 1/0

Large K (>>1) means products favored

Small K (<<1) means reactants favored

Adding c.e. means multiplying K

Multiplying c.e. by n means taking K^n

Reversing c.e. means taking 1/K

Add reactant (R) or product (P): rxn shifts to consume it Remove R or P: rxn shifts to replace it

Decrease the volume: rxn shifts to the side with the smallest n

Treat energy as R or P to predict effect of T on K