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Chapt. 6: Chemical Equilibrium
Education
TO
Terrence Oas
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Chapt. 6: Chemical Equilibrium
by
Terrence Oas
1. The Equilibrium Condition
1.1. How a reaction reaches equilibrium
1.2. Characteristics of chemical equilibrium
1.3. Equilibria are dynamic
2. The Equilibrium Constant
2.1. Law of mass action
2.2. Characteristics of the equilibrium expression
2.3. Equilibria in ammonia synthesis
2.4. Equilibrium position
3. Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures
3.1. Ideal gas law
3.2. Equilibrium partial pressures
3.3. Kp vs. K
4. The Concept of Activity
4.1. The reference state
4.2. For a gas, 1 atm
4.3. Definition of activity
5. Heterogeneous Equilibria
5.1. Phases: gas, solid, liquid
5.2. Heterogeneous Equilibria: between multiple phases
5.3. Equilibrium constant for heterogeneous equilibria
5.4. Activity of pure phases (solids or liquids)
6. Applications of the Equilibrium Constant
6.1. Predictions based on the equilibrium constant
6.2. Extent of reaction
6.3. Reaction quotient (Q)
6.4. Calculating equilibrium pressures and concentrations
7. Solving Equilibrium Problems
8. Le Châtelier's Principle
8.1. Effect of a change in conditions on equilibria
8.2. Effect of a change in concentration
8.3. Effect of a change in pressure
9. Equilibria Involving Real Gases
9.1. Non-ideality
9.2. How to correct Kp for non-ideality
10. Equilibria are dynamic but may be so slow that []s appear not to change
11. K is meaningful only at equilibrium
11.1. Can't be = 0 or 1/0
11.2. Large K (>>1) means products favored
11.3. Small K (<<1) means reactants favored
12. Activity is a way to compare the amount of a reactant or product to their standard state and make K unit-less
13. Partial pressures sum to total pressure
14. Acitivity of pure solid or liquid = 1
15. Q describes the position of a rxn not necessarily at equilibrium
16. ICE tables help organize equilibrium problems
17. Try to make x in the ICE table small. This simplifies the math!
18. You can do "math" with chemical equations
18.1. Adding c.e. means multiplying K
18.2. Multiplying c.e. by n means taking K^n
18.3. Reversing c.e. means taking 1/K
19. "Stress" on an equilibrium shifts reaction in direction that minimizes change
19.1. Add reactant (R) or product (P): rxn shifts to consume it Remove R or P: rxn shifts to replace it
19.2. Decrease the volume: rxn shifts to the side with the smallest n
19.3. Treat energy as R or P to predict effect of T on K
20. Activity coefficients correct for interactions between species
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