# Chapt. 6: Chemical Equilibrium

## Chapt. 6: Chemical Equilibrium

by Terrence Oas
## 1. The Equilibrium Condition

### 1.1. How a reaction reaches equilibrium

### 1.2. Characteristics of chemical equilibrium

### 1.3. Equilibria are dynamic

## 2. The Equilibrium Constant

### 2.1. Law of mass action

### 2.2. Characteristics of the equilibrium expression

### 2.3. Equilibria in ammonia synthesis

### 2.4. Equilibrium position

## 3. Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures

### 3.1. Ideal gas law

### 3.2. Equilibrium partial pressures

### 3.3. Kp vs. K

## 4. The Concept of Activity

### 4.1. The reference state

### 4.2. For a gas, 1 atm

### 4.3. Definition of activity

## 5. Heterogeneous Equilibria

### 5.1. Phases: gas, solid, liquid

### 5.2. Heterogeneous Equilibria: between multiple phases

### 5.3. Equilibrium constant for heterogeneous equilibria

### 5.4. Activity of pure phases (solids or liquids)

## 6. Applications of the Equilibrium Constant

### 6.1. Predictions based on the equilibrium constant

### 6.2. Extent of reaction

### 6.3. Reaction quotient (Q)

### 6.4. Calculating equilibrium pressures and concentrations

## 7. Solving Equilibrium Problems

## 8. Le Châtelier's Principle

### 8.1. Effect of a change in conditions on equilibria

### 8.2. Effect of a change in concentration

### 8.3. Effect of a change in pressure

## 9. Equilibria Involving Real Gases

### 9.1. Non-ideality

### 9.2. How to correct Kp for non-ideality

## 10. Equilibria are dynamic but may be so slow that []s appear not to change

## 11. K is meaningful only at equilibrium

### 11.1. Can't be = 0 or 1/0

### 11.2. Large K (>>1) means products favored

### 11.3. Small K (<<1) means reactants favored

## 12. Activity is a way to compare the amount of a reactant or product to their standard state and make K unit-less

## 13. Partial pressures sum to total pressure

## 14. Acitivity of pure solid or liquid = 1

## 15. Q describes the position of a rxn not necessarily at equilibrium

## 16. ICE tables help organize equilibrium problems

## 17. Try to make x in the ICE table small. This simplifies the math!

## 18. You can do "math" with chemical equations

### 18.1. Adding c.e. means multiplying K

### 18.2. Multiplying c.e. by n means taking K^n

### 18.3. Reversing c.e. means taking 1/K

## 19. "Stress" on an equilibrium shifts reaction in direction that minimizes change

### 19.1. Add reactant (R) or product (P): rxn shifts to consume it Remove R or P: rxn shifts to replace it

### 19.2. Decrease the volume: rxn shifts to the side with the smallest n

### 19.3. Treat energy as R or P to predict effect of T on K

## 20. Activity coefficients correct for interactions between species

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