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Chapt. 6: Chemical Equilibrium by Mind Map: Chapt. 6: Chemical
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Chapt. 6: Chemical Equilibrium

The Equilibrium Condition

How a reaction reaches equilibrium

Characteristics of chemical equilibrium

Equilibria are dynamic

The Equilibrium Constant

Law of mass action

Characteristics of the equilibrium expression

Equilibria in ammonia synthesis

Equilibrium position

Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures

Ideal gas law

Equilibrium partial pressures

Kp vs. K

The Concept of Activity

The reference state

For a gas, 1 atm

Definition of activity

Heterogeneous Equilibria

Phases: gas, solid, liquid

Heterogeneous Equilibria: between multiple phases

Equilibrium constant for heterogeneous equilibria

Activity of pure phases (solids or liquids)

Applications of the Equilibrium Constant

Predictions based on the equilibrium constant

Extent of reaction

Reaction quotient (Q)

Calculating equilibrium pressures and concentrations

Solving Equilibrium Problems

Le Châtelier's Principle

Effect of a change in conditions on equilibria

Effect of a change in concentration

Effect of a change in pressure

Equilibria Involving Real Gases


How to correct Kp for non-ideality

Equilibria are dynamic but may be so slow that []s appear not to change

K is meaningful only at equilibrium

Can't be = 0 or 1/0

Large K (>>1) means products favored

Small K (<<1) means reactants favored

Activity is a way to compare the amount of a reactant or product to their standard state and make K unit-less

Partial pressures sum to total pressure

Acitivity of pure solid or liquid = 1

Q describes the position of a rxn not necessarily at equilibrium

ICE tables help organize equilibrium problems

Try to make x in the ICE table small. This simplifies the math!

You can do "math" with chemical equations

Adding c.e. means multiplying K

Multiplying c.e. by n means taking K^n

Reversing c.e. means taking 1/K

"Stress" on an equilibrium shifts reaction in direction that minimizes change

Add reactant (R) or product (P): rxn shifts to consume it Remove R or P: rxn shifts to replace it

Decrease the volume: rxn shifts to the side with the smallest n

Treat energy as R or P to predict effect of T on K

Activity coefficients correct for interactions between species