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Chapt. 6: Chemical Equilibrium
by Terrence Oas
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Chapt. 6: Chemical Equilibrium

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The Equilibrium Condition

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How a reaction reaches equilibrium

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Characteristics of chemical equilibrium

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Equilibria are dynamic

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The Equilibrium Constant

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Law of mass action

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Characteristics of the equilibrium expression

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Equilibria in ammonia synthesis

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Equilibrium position

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Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures

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Ideal gas law

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Equilibrium partial pressures

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Kp vs. K

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The Concept of Activity

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The reference state

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For a gas, 1 atm

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Definition of activity

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Heterogeneous Equilibria

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Phases: gas, solid, liquid

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Heterogeneous Equilibria: between multiple phases

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Equilibrium constant for heterogeneous equilibria

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Activity of pure phases (solids or liquids)

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Applications of the Equilibrium Constant

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Predictions based on the equilibrium constant

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Extent of reaction

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Reaction quotient (Q)

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Calculating equilibrium pressures and concentrations

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Solving Equilibrium Problems

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Le Châtelier's Principle

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Effect of a change in conditions on equilibria

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Effect of a change in concentration

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Effect of a change in pressure

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Equilibria Involving Real Gases

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Non-ideality

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How to correct Kp for non-ideality

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Equilibria are dynamic but may be so slow that []s appear not to change

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K is meaningful only at equilibrium

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Can't be = 0 or 1/0

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Large K (>>1) means products favored

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Small K (<<1) means reactants favored

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Activity is a way to compare the amount of a reactant or product to their standard state and make K unit-less

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Partial pressures sum to total pressure

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Acitivity of pure solid or liquid = 1

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Q describes the position of a rxn not necessarily at equilibrium

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ICE tables help organize equilibrium problems

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Try to make x in the ICE table small. This simplifies the math!

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You can do "math" with chemical equations

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Adding c.e. means multiplying K

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Multiplying c.e. by n means taking K^n

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Reversing c.e. means taking 1/K

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"Stress" on an equilibrium shifts reaction in direction that minimizes change

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Add reactant (R) or product (P): rxn shifts to consume it Remove R or P: rxn shifts to replace it

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Decrease the volume: rxn shifts to the side with the smallest n

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Treat energy as R or P to predict effect of T on K

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Activity coefficients correct for interactions between species

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