ED 302 Mind Map

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ED 302 Mind Map by Mind Map: ED 302 Mind Map

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Purposes of Education

1.1.1. The basic purpose of education is to transmit the knowledge and skill of a society.

1.1.2. The specific purposes of education are political, social, economic and intellectual.

1.1.2.1. The Political purpose of education is to instill patriotism, prepare citizens who will assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order and to teach children the basic laws of society.

1.1.2.2. The Social purpose of education is to help solve perceived problems in society.

1.1.2.3. The Economic purpose of education is to prepare students for occupational roles and to select, train and allocate individuals into the division of labor.

1.1.2.4. The Intellectual purpose of school is to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing and arithmetic. (3 R's)

1.1.3. Traditional views assert that schools are necessary for the transmission of traditional U.S. values in society, such as hard work, individual initiative, and family unity.

1.1.4. Progressive views assert that schools are central to solving social problems, essential to the development of individuals, and an integral part of democratic society.

1.2. Perspectives of Education

1.2.1. Conservative

1.2.1.1. The viewpoint has its origin in the 1800's and is based on the idea of Social Darwinism. Individuals must compete in the social environment to survive; human progress is dependent on individual initiative and hard work. The free market economy of capitalism is viewed as the most productive economic system .http://autocww.colorado.edu/~toldy2/E64ContentFiles/SociologyAndReform/SocialDarwinism.html

1.2.2. Liberal

1.2.2.1. The viewpoint has its origins in the 1900's and is based on the works of John Dewey and progressivism. This perspective is concerned with equality and balancing the economic productivity of capitalism with the social and economic needs of the people. This view insists that government involvement in economic, political and social arenas is necessary for fair treatment of all citizens.

1.2.3. Radical

1.2.3.1. The viewpoint is based on the writings of German economist and philosopher Karl Marx (1818- 1883). The Radical viewpoint suggests that the capitalist system produces fundamental contradictions that will lead to a transformation into socialism. Radicals believe that the capitalist system is the root of U.S. social problems.

1.2.4. Neo-liberal

1.2.4.1. The viewpoint is a combination of both conservative and liberal perspectives. Neo-liberals critique failing traditional schools and attribute school failures to teacher unions, teacher tenure, layoffs based on seniority, and the absence of school, teacher, and student accountability.

1.3. Viewpoints of Society

1.3.1. The Conservative perspective maintains a positive view of U.S. society and social problems.

1.3.2. The Liberal perspective also maintains a positive view of U.S. society, but with reservations. Liberals believe without government intervention, capitalism creates far too much political and economic disparity between citizens.

1.3.3. The Radical perspective is negative about U.S. society due to the perceived inequalities created by a capitalist system.

1.4. The Role of School

1.4.1. Consevatives

1.4.1.1. See the role of school as providing educational training to ensure talented and hardworking students receive the tools to maximize economic and social productivity.

1.4.2. Liberals

1.4.2.1. Believes schools should train and socialize students, but also believe that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed in society.

1.4.3. Radicals

1.4.3.1. Believe schools should be used to eliminate inequalities in society, however, they also believe that equality is only an illusion.

1.5. Explanations of Unequal School Performance

1.5.1. Conservatives

1.5.1.1. Believe that individual achievement is determined by intelligence, hard work, and initiative.

1.5.2. Liberals

1.5.2.1. Believe that students begin with different life chances; hence some groups have significantly more advantages than others.

1.5.3. Radicals

1.5.3.1. Believe that students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds begin school with unequal opportunities.

1.6. Definitions of Educational Problems

1.6.1. Conservative Perspective

1.6.1.1. Decline of standards, decline of cultural literacy, decline of values, and decline of authority.

1.6.2. Liberal Perspective

1.6.2.1. Schools limit the chances of poor and minority children, schools place too much emphasis on discipline and authority, and traditional curriculum disregards diverse cultures in society.

1.6.3. Radical Perspective

1.6.3.1. Schools fail the poor, minorities, and women through classist/racist policies, schools stifle understanding of societal problems in America by promoting conformity and the education system promotes inequality.

1.7. Policy and Reform

1.7.1. Conservatives

1.7.1.1. Support a return to basics, return to traditional curriculum, and accountability.

1.7.2. Liberals

1.7.2.1. Support quality with equality, effective research, enhanced opportunities for disadvantaged groups, a more culturally diverse curriculum, and a balance between performance standards and ensuring students can meet them.

1.7.3. Radicals

1.7.3.1. Support teachers/parents/students having a greater voice in decision making, curriculum based on finding solutions for social problems, and curriculum which is multicultural/antiracist/anticlassist.

1.7.4. Neo-Liberal

1.7.4.1. Reforms focus on five areas of educational policy: austerity, the market model, individualism, state intervention, economic prosperity, race and class.

2. History of Education

2.1. The History of U.S. History

2.1.1. Since the beginning of education in America Schools have been charged with assuming roles that once were the province of family, church, and community. School continues to serve as a focal point in larger issues of societal needs.

2.1.2. There is very little consensus when it comes to school reform.

2.1.3. 17th Century

2.1.3.1. 1635 Boston Latin Grammar School (school) established

2.1.3.2. 1636 Harvard College established

2.1.3.3. 1647 Puritans of New England "Old Deluder Satan Law" was regarded as the historical first step toward compulsory government directed public education in the U.S.

2.1.3.4. 1687-1890 New England Primer was the first reading textbook designed for the American Colonies. It became the most successful educational textbook published in 18th century America and was the foundation of most education before the 1890's.

2.1.3.5. Benjamin Franklin - called for an education for youth based on secular/utilitarian studies rather than traditional studies of religion and classics.

2.1.3.6. Thomas Jefferson - strongly believed the best safeguard for democracy is literacy. Jefferson proposed a bill in 1779 called the "Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge" which would provide free education to all children for the first three years of elementary school.

2.1.4. 18th Century

2.1.4.1. Development of a national interest in education, state responsibility for education, & growth in secondary education.

2.1.4.2. 1751 The Franklin Academy opened in Philadelphia.

2.1.4.3. 1783 Noah Webster's American Spelling book was published.

2.1.4.4. 1785, 1787 Land Ordinance Act, Northwest Ordinance- property taxes for school

2.1.5. 19th Century

2.1.5.1. Increasing role of public secondary schools, increased but segregated education of women and minorities, attention to the field of education and teacher preparation.

2.1.5.2. 1821 Emma Willard's Troy Female seminary opens, first endowed secondary school for girls.

2.1.5.3. 1821 First Public High school opens in Boston.

2.1.5.4. 1837 Horace Mann became Secretary of the Board of Education in Massachusetts. Mann was a politician and educational reformer who argued that universal public education was the best way to turn children into responsible citizens. Mann's reform is credited for the popularization of "normal schools" that trained professional teachers.

2.1.5.5. 1855 First Kindergarten in the U.S.

2.1.5.6. 1874 Kalamazoo Case - established the use of taxes to fund public schools.

2.1.5.7. 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson - a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision upholding the constitutionality of laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities (such as schools) under the principle of "separate but equal."

2.2. 20th Century

2.2.1. Increasing federal support for educational rights of underachieving students; increased federal funding of specific educational programs.

2.2.2. 1909 First Junior High school opened in Columbus, Ohio.

2.2.3. 1919 Progressive Education Programs (promoted hands on, inquiry based learning).

2.2.4. 1932 Roosevelt's New Deal education Programs.

2.2.5. 1944 G.I. Bill of Rights (Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944) provided tuition and/or technical training to soldiers returning from WW II

2.2.6. 1954 Brown v. Board of Education overturned Plessy v. Ferguson and determined that separate was not equal and that segregation in schools and all other public forums was unconstitutional.

2.2.7. 1957 Sputnik leads to increased federal education funds/1958 National Defense Education Act.

2.2.8. 1964-1965 Head Start Funded.

2.2.9. 1972 Title IX - prohibited discrimination on the basis of sex education in public education and federally assisted programs.

2.2.10. 1975 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is passed.

2.2.11. 1979 Cabinet-level Department of Education is established.

2.2.12. 1983 A Nation at Risk - the 1983 report of Ronald Reagan's National Commission on Excellence in Education.

2.2.13. 2002 No Child Left Behind Act - law passed by George W. Bush in 2002 which called for increased school accountability.

2.3. Historical Interpretations of U.S. Education

2.3.1. The differing interpretations of the history of education in the United States revolve around disagreements regarding equity and excellence, the social and intellectual functions of schools, and educational goals.

2.3.2. The American school system has expanded over the years to serve more students for longer periods than any other country in the modern world.

2.3.2.1. This occurred by the extending of primary school through education laws during the Common School Era, then extending high school for all adolescents during the Progressive Era, and lastly by offering postsecondary education to the largest number of high school graduates in the world by the mid-1990's.

2.3.3. Conservatives assert that due to progressive movements in education, academic quality has suffered.

2.3.3.1. Conservatives argue that the liberal pursuits of social and political objectives have resulted in significant damage to the traditional academic goals of schools.

2.3.4. Democratic - Liberals assert that the history of education in the U.S. involves progressive evolution , although flawed, of school systems that are committed to providing equal opportunity for all students.

2.3.4.1. Democratic - liberal historians believe that each period of educational expansion involved liberal reformers who helped expand educational opportunities to larger portions of the population.

2.3.5. Radical - Revisionist educators assert that educational expansion has benefitted the elite few rather than the general population, and has not produced equality of opportunity or effective results.

2.3.5.1. The radical/revisionist interpretation of the history of American education reform is pessimistic due to the ongoing lack of educational equality.

3. Sociology of Education

3.1. The purpose of sociological inquiry is to focus on the influence of schooling on equity and opportunity for students.

3.2. Schools serve as "gatekeepers" of knowledge and skills, and hence provide students with both economic and social worth in the world of employment.

3.3. 3 Major Theories about the Relationships Between Schools and Sociology

3.3.1. Functional Theories: Functional sociologists assess the interdependence of the social system; viewing society as a machine where one part works with another to make society work.

3.3.2. Interactional Theories: Interactional sociologists take a up close view of the interactions between students/ students and teachers/ teacher.

3.3.3. Conflict Theories: Conflict sociologists assert that society is held together by shared values alone, but on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups (ie. the glue of society is economic, cultural, and political.

3.3.4. Functionalist Theory interprets each part of society in terms of how it contributes to the stability of the whole society.

3.3.5. Society is more than the sum of its parts; rather, each part of society is functional for the stability of the whole society

3.3.6. When one part of the system is not working, it affects all other parts and creates social problems, which lead to social change.

3.3.7. Social conflict theory is a Marxist-based social theory which argues that social classes within a society have differing amounts of material and non-material resources (such as the wealthy vs. the poor).

3.3.8. According to conflict theory, inequality exists because those in control of a disproportionate share of society's resources actively defend their advantages.

3.3.9. Interaction theory is an approach to questions about social cognition, or how one understands other people, that focuses on behaviors and environmental contexts rather than on mental processes or academic achievement.

3.4. Sociological Influences of School

3.4.1. The effects of schooling impact: knowledge/attitudes, employment, education, and social mobility.

3.4.2. Tracking: In a tracking system, the entire school population is assigned to classes according to whether the students' overall achievement is above average, normal, or below average.

3.4.3. Defacto Segregation: Racial segregation, especially in public schools, that happens "by fact" rather than by legal requirement.

3.4.4. Schools reinforce larger cultural messages about gender, including the idea that gender is an essential characteristic for organizing social life.

3.5. Inadequate Schools

3.5.1. Inadequate schools usually share these three items in common: Overcrowding, poor physical condition of the buildings, and lack of supplies/materials for the teachers and students. http://www2.ed.gov/offices/OESE/archives/inits/construction/impact2.html

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Teacher- Centered Philosophies

4.1.1. Essentialism

4.1.1.1. Rooted in Realism

4.1.1.2. Curriculum is geared towards the fundamentals

4.1.1.3. 3R's at the elementary level and 5 core subject in High school

4.1.1.4. "Less, but more focused."

4.1.1.5. Theorists:

4.1.1.5.1. William Bagley

4.1.1.5.2. E.D. Hirsch

4.1.2. Perennialism

4.1.2.1. Rooted in Idealism

4.1.2.2. Teaching from the "Great Books"

4.1.2.3. Expounds the past and teachers universally agreed upon knowledge and cherished societal values

4.1.2.4. No textbooks

4.1.2.5. Socratic Method of Teaching

4.1.2.6. Theorists:

4.1.2.6.1. Mortimer Adler

4.1.2.6.2. Robert Hutchins

4.2. Student-Centered Philosophies

4.2.1. Progressivsm

4.2.1.1. Rooted in Pragmatism

4.2.1.2. How to think: not what to think

4.2.1.3. Teaches problem-solving, inquiry cooperation, and self discilpline

4.2.1.4. Scientific Inquiry

4.2.1.5. Scientific Method

4.2.1.6. Theorists:

4.2.1.6.1. John Dewey

4.2.1.6.2. William James

4.2.1.6.3. Nel Noddings

4.2.1.6.4. Francis W. Parker

4.2.2. Social Reconstructionism

4.2.2.1. Rooted in Pragmatism

4.2.2.2. Emphasizes society-centered education and global issues

4.2.2.3. Focus on Societal Reform

4.2.2.4. Curriculum: community projects, Ex. grow community garden

4.2.2.5. Theorists:

4.2.2.5.1. Theodore Brameld

4.2.2.5.2. George Counts

4.2.2.5.3. Paulo Friere

4.2.2.5.4. Bell Hooks

4.2.3. Existentialism

4.2.3.1. Emphasizes individualism and personal self-fulfillment

4.2.3.2. Subject matter is secondary to self-understanding

4.2.3.3. Learning is self-paced and self directed

4.2.3.4. Open learning environment with focus on the individual student growth.

4.2.3.5. Theorists:

4.2.3.5.1. Maxine Greene

4.2.3.5.2. A.S. Neill

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Schools: powerful organizations that profoundly affect the lives of children and adults who come in contact with them.

5.2. To understand education, one must look beyond the classroom itself and the interaction between teachers and students to the larger world where different interest groups compete with each other in terms of ideology, finances, and power.

5.3. School processes refer to the way in which school cultures are created and maintained.

5.4. Decentralized school system: each state maintains its autonomy, authority, and responsibility regarding education. The federal government has very little input regarding individual schools.

5.5. Consolidation and Centralization of Schools: during the past 80 years, schools in the U.S. have consolidated so that education is more efficient and cost effective.

5.6. A negative impact of consolidation and centralization is that schools have become less diverse, more bureaucratic and less democratic.

5.7. Willard Waller, an educational sociologist, asserted that schools are separate social organizations due to:

5.7.1. Schools have a definite population.

5.7.2. Schools have a clearly defined political structure.

5.7.3. Schools represent a central network of social relationships.

5.7.4. Schools are permeated with a "we" ideal rather than a "me" ideal.

5.7.5. Schools each have a definite culture that is specific to the individual school.

5.8. Sociologist Max Weber asserted that schools are social organizations that are bureaucratic in nature.

5.9. Bureaucracies, according to Weber, are an endeavor to organize human behavior in order to achieve specific goals.

5.10. The No Child Left Behind Act mandates that teachers must be highly qualified through meeting 3 qualifications:

5.10.1. Hold a college degree.

5.10.2. Full certification in field of study.

5.10.3. Demonstrable knowledge of academic content in the field of study/certification.

5.11. In Great Britain, there are five stages of education:

5.11.1. Early Years, Primary, Secondary, Further Education, and Higher education.

5.11.2. Great Britain has a highly centralized national curriculum and system of national assessment

5.12. Education in France is highly centralized, with the French government controlling the educational system all the way to the individual classrooms. Schools are highly stratified, and traditionally there are two public school systems; one for ordinary citizens and one for elite society.

5.13. Schools in Japan are widely regarded as the benchmark for educational effectiveness.

5.13.1. Double schooling - Japanese students are exposed to two sets of educational systems: the traditional public school and the informal school called the "study institution" (Juku).

5.14. Germany sorts children at a young age and tracks them into a three part system of secondary education. The three educational systems prepare students for:

5.14.1. Blue collar service or service positions.

5.14.2. Lower level white collar positions.

5.14.3. Academic preparation for high level professions.

6. Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge

6.1. Traditional approaches view curriculum as objective bodies of knowledge and examine ways in which this knowledge may be designed, taught, and evaluated.

6.1.1. This simplified view of curriculum ignores the social and political dimensions of what is taught in schools.

6.1.1.1. What goes on inside schools related to curriculum and teaching practices?

6.1.1.2. What do schools teach, how do they teach it, and why?

6.1.2. Traditional approaches to curriculum view the curriculum as a body of knowledge and ways this knowledge may be designed, taught, and assessed.

6.2. Current approaches to curriculum focus on designing curriculum around goals and objectives, and to assess it in terms of student learning.

6.3. The Humanist Curriculum is based from the idealist philosophy that knowledge of the traditional liberal arts as the basis of an educated society. This view of curriculum purports that the purpose of education is to present the best of whatever has been thought or written.

6.4. Social Efficiency Curriculum is pragmatic/progressive in nature, with a belief that different groups of students have different needs, and should receive different types of education to meet those specific needs.

6.5. Developmentalist Curriculum is also based on progressive educational practices. John Dewey and Jean Piaget emphasized the importance of the process of teaching along with the curricular content. The curriculum focuses on the needs and interests of each individual child at each particular developmental stages.

6.6. Social Meliorist Curriculum is based on the social reconstructionist theory that schools should work to change society and help solve fundamental social problems.

6.7. Functionalist Theories: The role of the curriculum is to give students the knowledge, language, and values to ensure social stability, to further the common social order.

6.8. Conflict Theories: Conflict theorists believe curriculum is a reflection of ideology; they do not believe that schools teach liberal values such as tolerance and respect (ie. hidden curriculum)

6.9. The "Hidden Curriculum" includes norms which are taught to students through implicit rules and messages, but is not written in the official curriculum. Example: learning how to walk in line, how to address teachers, etc.

6.10. The "Null Curriculum" is the curriculum that is specifically omitted from being taught in schools.

7. Equality of Opportunities for Educational Outcomes

7.1. Caste Stratification - occurs in agrarian sociteies where social level is defined in terms of some strict criteria such as race or religion.

7.2. Estate Stratification- occurs agrarian in societies where social level is defined in terms of the hierarchy of family worth.

7.3. Class Stratification - occurs in industrial societies that define social level in terms of a hierarchy of differential achievement by individuals, especially in economic pursuits.

7.4. Social Stratification in the U.S.

7.4.1. Upper Class: 1-3% of the population Upper Middle Class: 15% of the population Lower Middle Class: 25% of the population Working Class: 40% of the population Underclass/Lower Class 20% of the population

7.5. Achievement Gap refers to the observed, persistent disparity of educational measures between the performance of groups of students ( especially groups defined by socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity or gender).

7.6. Females achieve at higher levels in reading at ages 9,13, and 17 but achieve at lower levels in science at the same age. This is an example of sociological research that illustrates the impact of achievement gaps in schools on equal educational opportunities.

7.7. The Coleman Report

7.7.1. An influential and controversial study, the Coleman Report was based on an extensive survey of educational opportunity (the national sample included almost 650,000 students and teachers in more than 3,000 schools), was mandated in the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and directed by the sociologist James Coleman.

7.7.2. Coleman's work was oft misinterpreted as an argument that schools don't matter, only families matter.

7.7.3. Coleman's subsequent work was designed to help identify the characteristics of schools which did matter so that the impact of school relative to that of family could be increased.

8. Explanations of Educational Inequality

8.1. The Functionalist vision of a "just society" is one where individual talent and hard work are based on universal principles of evaluation.

8.2. Functionalist expect that the process of schooling will produce unequal results, but that the results should be due to individual's differences between students, not on group differences.

8.3. Conflict theorists believe that the role of schooling is to reproduce instead of eliminate inequality (this assertion is consistent with data that shows educational outcomes that are strongly linked to family background)

8.4. Interactionist theory suggests that we must understand how people within institutions such as families or schools interact on a daily basis in order to comprehend the factors explaining academic success or failure.

8.4.1. Student- Centered or Extra- School explanations of inequalities focus on factors outside of school such as a family, the community, culture, peer groups and the individual student.

8.4.2. School Centered or Within- School explanations of inequalities focus on factors within the school such as the teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, ability grouping, school climate and teacher expectations.

8.5. Student Centered Explanations of Educational Inequality: 3 Controversial Perspectives

8.5.1. Genetic or Biological Differences Theory

8.5.2. Cultural Deprivation Theories

8.5.3. Cultural Difference Theories: First theory asserts that African American children do less well in school because they adapt to their oppressed positions in the class structure. Second theory views working class and non-white students as resisting the dominant culture of schools Third theory asserts that Asian Americans possess family values that place great emphasis on educational achievement along with high expectations for children

8.6. Characteristics of Effective Schools

8.6.1. High expectations for students by teachers and administrators.

8.6.2. Strong, effective leadership by school administration.

8.6.3. Accountability processes for both students and teachers.

8.6.4. Close monitoring of student learning.

8.6.5. A high degree of instructional time on task.

8.6.6. Flexibility for teachers to adapt to new situations and solve problems.

9. Educational Reform and School Improvement

9.1. A Nation at Risk: The First Wave of Education Reform

9.1.1. The first wave of education reform in the United States stressed the need for increased educational excellence through increased educational standards.

9.1.2. The reform focused on the need:

9.1.2.1. for excellence and equity in schools.

9.1.2.2. to clarify educational goals.

9.1.2.3. to develop a common core curriculum.

9.1.2.4. to eliminate tracking programs.

9.1.2.5. for major changes in vocational education.

9.1.2.6. for education to teach about technology.

9.1.2.7. to increase duration and intensity of academic learning.

9.1.2.8. to recruit, train, and retain more academically able teachers.

9.1.3. The second wave of reform was based on the recommendations made on the State Governor's Conference. The reform focused on:

9.1.3.1. Teaching, leadership and management.

9.1.3.2. Parental involvement and choice in schools.

9.1.3.3. Student readiness for school (for preschoolers).

9.1.3.4. School facilities being fully utilized.

9.1.3.5. Quality colleges and accountability for learning.

9.1.3.6. The Carnegie report entitled A Nation Prepared: Teachers for a 21st Century focused on the educational quality of teacher education programs It asserted:

9.1.3.6.1. Teacher education programs lacked rigor and intellectual demands which would negatively impact success and student achievement in schools.

9.1.3.6.2. The necessity to reorganize the academic and professional components of teacher education programs.

9.1.3.6.3. The need to attract and retain competent teacher candidates.

9.2. Goals 2000

9.2.1. Goal 1: All children will start school ready to learn.

9.2.2. Goal 2: High school graduation rates will increase to at least 90%.

9.2.3. Goal three; American students will leave grades 4,8, and 12, having demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter so that they would be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our modern economy.

9.2.4. Goal 4: U.S. students will be first in the world in math and science achievement.

9.2.5. Goal 5: Every adult American will be literate and possess the skills necessary to compete in a global economy.

9.2.6. Goal 6: Every school in America will be free of drugs and violence and will offer a disciplined environment conducive to learning.

9.3. No Child Left Behind

9.3.1. Annual testing required of students in grades 3-8 in reading and math, plus at least one test in grades 10-12 with science testing. Graduation rates are used as a secondary indicator for high schools.

9.3.2. States and districts are required to report school data on student test performance broken out by whether the student is African American, Hispanic American, Native American , Asian American, white non-Hispanic, special education, limited proficiency, and/ or low income.

9.3.3. States must set adequate yearly progress (AYP) goals for each school.

9.3.4. Schools that don't meet the AYP for 2 years are labeled "In need of Improvement". This means that schools must offer the students the option to go to another public school and/ or receive federally funded tutoring. Funds would also be made available for teacher professional development. If the school does not meet subsequent year's AYP, it would be subject to restructuring.

9.3.5. Schools must have "high qualified teachers" for teachers in the core academic subjects.

9.4. Race to the Top (under Obama's administration)

9.4.1. Suggestions for educational reform:

9.4.1.1. Adopting standards and assessments that prepare students to succeed in college and in the workplace and to compete in the global economy.

9.4.1.2. Building data systems that measure student growth and success and inform teachers and principals about how they can improve instruction.

9.4.1.3. Recruiting, developing, rewarding and retaining effective teachers and principals.

9.4.1.4. Turning around the lowest achieving schools.