Morphology, word formation and lexicology

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Morphology, word formation and lexicology by Mind Map: Morphology, word formation and lexicology

1. Morphology: is the study of the basic building blocks of meaning in language, morphemes.

1.1. Free morphemes or roots: can appear as a word by itself.

1.2. Bound morphemes or affixes: can only appear as part of a multi-morphemic word.

1.2.1. Derivational morphemes: create new words

1.2.2. Inflectional morphemes: make minor grammatical changes.

1.2.3. Prefixes

1.2.4. Suffixes

1.2.5. Infixes

1.3. Content morphemes: carry semantic content

1.4. Funtion morphemes: provide grammatical information and syntactic agreement

2. Pragmatics:  is the study of how people do things with words.

2.1. Speech acts:  use language to accomplish certain kinds of acts

2.1.1. Direct speech acts:  1) Assertion; 2) Question; 3) Orders and requests. Can include performative verbs.

2.1.2. Indirect Speech Acts: not referring to literal meaning.

2.2. Conversational implicature: the participants in a conversation are cooperating in an attempt to reach mutual goals. Include the maxims of quantity, quality, relevance and manner.

2.3. Rhetorical Structure:  embrace the relationships of phrases inside sentences and among sentences or groups of sentences.

2.4. Managing the flow of reference in discourse to transmit the message.

3. Semantics: is the study of the relation between form and meaning.

3.1. The words meaning is given from the relations between words, concepts and things.

3.1.1. Referential theories of meaning: meaning is reference to facts or objects in the world, that is the denotation relation

3.1.2. Truth-conditional theory of semantics: to know the meaning of a declarative sentence is  to know what the world would have to be like for the sentence to be true. To give the meaning of a sentence is to specify its truth conditions,

3.1.2.1. Intensional semantics refers to the Truth-conditional semantics that is enriched with possible worlds: 1) hypothetical conditional sentences; 2) counterfactual conditional sentences.

3.1.3. The model-theoretic semantics: refers to models or structures. The worlds that can be construed in terms of abstract mathematical entities are called model.s

3.1.4. Cognitive and conceptual semantic theories: are concerned with words that describe concepts that have no clear category boundaries and whose members do not have an equal status.

3.1.4.1. Fillmore: words and other linguistic units up to the sentence level are interpreted against the background of Frames. A frame is a  structure of inferences, linked by linguistic convention to the meanings of linguistic unit.

3.2. The symbolic function of the linguistic  sign is based of the comunication intention of users. and the convention of its use.

4. Syntax: is the study of the formation of sentences.

5. Lexicology: deals with vocabulary of the language and the property of words as basic  units of the language.

5.1. General lexicology:  is the broad study of the vocabulary.

5.2. Special lexicology: studies characteristic features of the vocabulary of a specific language.

5.3. Contrastive lexicology: compares the vocabulary organization oftwo or more languages.

5.4. Historical lexicology (etymology): studies the evolution of separate words and the vocabulary in general

5.5. Descriptive lexicology:studies the vocabulary of a specific language at a certain stage of its development

5.6. Applied branches of lexicology: translation, lexicography, linguistic pedagogic and speech culture.