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Behaviorism by Mind Map: Behaviorism

1. Basic Principles

1.1. Uses rewards to reinforce good behavior

1.2. Use negative reinforcement to diminish negative behavior

1.3. Passive learning

1.4. Positive and negative responses to behavior

1.5. Learning is observable and measurable

2. Embedded Theories

2.1. Pavlov's Classical Conditioning

2.1.1. No contingency between response and reinforcer

2.1.2. Pavlov trained dogs to associate a sound with a food reward

2.1.3. Pavlov rang a bell when it was time to eat and soon, if he rang the bell without any food, the dogs would salivate in anticipation anyways

2.1.4. Someone will eventually begin to associate the unconditioned stimulus to conditioned stimulus

2.1.5. "Conditioned reflex"- one that is not innate, but can become learned relatively quickly

2.2. Stimulus-Response Theory

2.2.1. All complex behaviors are made up of simple stimulus-response situations

2.2.2. Can be seen as well as measured

2.2.3. Ex: a child's attitude can be easily traced back to a stimulus that triggered that attitude

2.2.4. Elicited Response: occurs in the presence of a stimulus

2.2.5. Emitted Response: the behavior was emitted from the organism, but not as a response to stimulus

3. Principal Theorists

3.1. Ivan Pavlov

3.1.1. Was originally a doctor for digestion and blood circulation

3.1.2. He started the study with the intention of seeing if salivation affects the way the stomach works, but it quickly became a psychological experiment

3.1.3. Conditioned reflex could possibly explain mental patients

3.2. Albert Bandura

3.2.1. Grew up very poor, but that didn't stop him from doing great things

3.2.2. Learned about behaviorism and learning theory at the University of Iowa

3.2.3. President of the APA in 1973 and in 1980, received the APA’s Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

4. Goals of Instruction

4.1. Transfer information from teacher to learner, don't consider mental processing

4.2. Learner must know how to illicit the proper response and the conditions to reach that response

4.3. Skills of Discrimination: recalling facts, Generalization: define and illustrate concepts, Association: apply explanations, Chaining: automatically perform a specified procedure

5. Instructional Models

5.1. Programmed Learning

5.1.1. More structured, such as using a textbook

5.1.2. If a student doesn't understand one concept, they cannot move on to the next one

5.1.3. Learners know their results right away

6. Implications for Instructional Design

6.1. Behavioral objectives-emphasize observable and measurable outcomes

6.2. Dick and Carey instructional design model- determine instructional goal, analyze instructional goal, analyze learners and contexts, write objectives, develop assessment instruments, develop instructional strategy, develop and select instructional materials, design and conduct evaluation, revise instruction, summative evaluation

6.3. Performance-based assessment-criterion-referenced assessment measures what a student can do based on learning objectives

6.4. Systems models-"more efficient methods of creating directed instruction"

6.5. Cognitive objectives-task analysis; Bloom's taxonomy