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Solutions by Mind Map: Solutions

1. homogenous mixture of two or more pure substances

1.1. solute: the component present lesser

1.2. solvent: the component in greater proportion

1.3. solute (less) + solvent (more) = solution

1.4. the imf of between solute and solvent must be stronger than between the solute particles and solvent particles

1.5. occurs when solvent molecules pulls or attracts the solute molecules and surround or solvate them

1.6. Ionic Substances

1.6.1. high hydration energy = more soluble

1.6.2. high lattice energy = less soluble

1.6.3. dissolution: when solution is evaporated, youll get original salt (reaction)

1.6.4. chemical reaction: when solution evaporated, different salt obtained or no salt at all

2. Solubility

2.1. results

2.1.1. miscible liquid: mix uniformly

2.1.2. immiscible liquid: form layers

2.1.3. partially miscible: uniform only for certain amount then form layers

2.2. concentration of solute in the solution that exists in an equilibrium condition with the undissolved solute

2.2.1. unsaturated solution

2.2.1.1. the conc of solute is less than solution

2.2.2. saturated solution

2.2.2.1. solute conc equal to solubility

2.2.3. supersaturated solution

2.2.3.1. solvent holds more solute that it should at its std

2.2.3.2. very unstable but no residue

2.3. Entalphy of solution

2.3.1. the change in the energy that accompanies the dissolution of one mole of solute

2.3.2. dH(sol) = dH1 + dH2 + dH3

2.3.3. endothermic -> exothermic (solvent solute breaks to form solution)

2.4. Spontaneity

2.4.1. low entalphy, high spontaneity

2.4.2. covalent bond - polar polar

2.4.3. hydrogen bonding - non polar non polar

2.4.4. high hydration energy, low lattice energy = high solubility

2.5. Factors Affecting Solubility