Student Assessments

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Student Assessments by Mind Map: Student Assessments

1. Assessment of Learning

1.1. Diagnostic

1.1.1. Definition

1.1.1.1. Involves the gathering and careful evaluation of detailed data using students' knowledge and skills in a given learning area

1.1.2. Purpose

1.1.2.1. The data assists teachers to plan for an appropriate pedagogy and targeted learning to more effectively scaffold the learning needs of their students

1.1.3. Advantages

1.1.3.1. Can help teacher identify their students' current knowledge, skill sets and capabilities.

1.1.3.2. Can also clarify any misconception before teaching takes place

1.1.4. Disadvantages

1.1.4.1. Can make students anxious which can lead to unreliable results

1.1.4.2. Can be time consuming

1.1.5. Assessment of Learning Rationale

1.1.5.1. The assessment will show the students learning skills so far and will give opportunity to create specific learning activities to support these assessment results.

1.1.6. Example in AP Chemistry

1.1.6.1. During the beginning of the semester, students can be given a diagnostic to determine students' background information and mathematical readiness. Example diagnostic test is linked.

1.1.7. References

1.1.7.1. Northern Territory Government: Department of Education. (2013, November 26). Diagnostic assessments. Retrieved January 31, 2016, from http://www.education.nt.gov.au/parents-community/assessment-reporting/diagnostic-assessments/diagnostic-assessments

1.2. Authentic

1.2.1. Definition

1.2.1.1. A method of evaluation in which students perform real-life tasks to demonstrate their ability to apply relevant knowledge and skills.

1.2.1.2. Also known as performance-based assessments

1.2.2. Purpose

1.2.2.1. Aims to highlight constructive nature of learning and education and allows students to choose their own path for demonstrating skill set

1.2.3. Advantages

1.2.3.1. Focuses on analytical skills and the integration of knowledge

1.2.3.2. Reflection of real-world skills and knowledge

1.2.3.3. Encourages collaborative work

1.2.4. Disadvantages

1.2.4.1. Difficut to coordinate with mandatory educational standards

1.2.4.2. Challenging to provide conisistent grading scheme

1.2.4.3. Subjective nature of grading may lead to bias

1.2.5. Assessment of Learning Rationale

1.2.5.1. At the end of the unit, students will be able to show their mastery in the material using pre-defined set of standards and experience real-world scenarios.

1.2.6. Example in AP Chemistry

1.2.6.1. In the unit of Chemical Rates (Kinetics), students can be assigned to create a soda rocket using a pre-defined set of materials. Overview of the activity is linked.

1.2.7. References

1.2.7.1. Authentic Assessment. (n.d.). Retrieved January 31, 2016, from https://educ6040fall10.wikispaces.com/Authentic Assessment

1.3. High-stakes

1.3.1. Definition

1.3.1.1. Takes place after the learning has been completed and provides information and feedback that sums up the teaching and learning process.

1.3.1.2. Sometimes named as Summative assessment

1.3.2. Purpose

1.3.2.1. Used to evaluate student learning, skill acquisition and academic achievement at the conclusion of a defined instructional method (end of a project, unit, course or semester)

1.3.3. Advantages

1.3.3.1. Results can be used to help teachers create a learning plan based on the students' needs.

1.3.3.2. As for parents, they can look at the results to see how well, or poorly the child's school is performing.

1.3.4. Disadvantages

1.3.4.1. Subjects like science, social studies and the arts are sacrificed to make time for more test prep.

1.3.4.2. The pressure on teachers clamp down on creativity and innovation to their lesson plans resulting in less flexibility to individual students.

1.3.5. Assessment of Learning Rationale

1.3.5.1. High-stakes assessment become public and results in statements or symbols of how well students are learning.

1.3.6. Example in AP Chemistry

1.3.6.1. The AP Chemistry Exam, usually held in May, is an example of a High Stakes assessment because it means students' are able to get college credit or not.

1.3.7. References

1.3.7.1. Munoz, R. (2014, December 4). High Stakes Testing Pros and Cons. Retrieved January 31, 2016, from http://www.education.com/magazine/article/high-stakes-testing-pros-cons/

1.4. Summative

1.4.1. Definition

1.4.1.1. Typically used to evaluate the effectiveness of instructional programs and services at the end of an academic year or at a predetermined time

1.4.2. Purpose

1.4.2.1. Aims to make a judgment of student competency after an instructional phase is complete

1.4.3. Advantages

1.4.3.1. Provide motivation for students to study and pay attention in class

1.4.3.2. Gives great insight to teachers as to how they can improve their instructions next time

1.4.4. Disadvantages

1.4.4.1. Can be very tedious to grade and students to take

1.4.4.2. Students can get nervous when taking tests which is not at all reflective of their mastery f the material

1.4.5. Assessment of Learning Rationale

1.4.5.1. Summative assessments designed to provide evidence of achievement to parents, other educators, the students themselves.

1.4.6. Example in AP Chemistry

1.4.6.1. At the end of the semester, a final cumulative exam will show students' understanding of the material up to that point.

1.4.7. References

1.4.7.1. Concordia Online. (2013, February 27). Summative Assessment: What Teachers Need to Know. Retrieved January 31, 2016, from http://education.cu-portland.edu/blog/teaching-strategies/summative-assessment-what-teachers-need-to-know/

1.5. Portfolio

1.5.1. Definition

1.5.1.1. A collection of student activities, accomplishments and achievements to demonstrate growth over time, offering an alternative authentic assessment fr students and teachers.

1.5.2. Purpose

1.5.2.1. Portfolios can provide teachers with a tool to use showing what, how or how well students are learning both intended and incidental outcomes.

1.5.3. Advantages

1.5.3.1. Self evaluation - Requires the students to continuously reflect and perform self-evaluation of their work.

1.5.3.2. Individualized - Growth is specific to every student so a portfolio shows them how they can improve over time at their own pace.

1.5.4. Disadvantages

1.5.4.1. May be seen as less reliable or fair than more quantitative evaluation such as test scores.

1.5.4.2. Can be very time consuming for teachers to organize and evaluate the content.

1.5.4.3. If goals are not clear, the portfolio can be just a miscellaneous collection of materials that don't show patterns of growth

1.5.5. Assessment of Learning Rationale

1.5.5.1. Portfolio is a culmination of the students' work in class that showcases their growth improvement to show the teacher for grading or to parents for evidence of learning.

1.5.6. Example in AP Chemistry

1.5.6.1. Chemistry students can be designed to create a portfolio which had to include five of the following nine categories: (1) Solve a problem, design an experiment, analyze a result, group effort in problem solving. (2) Identify a misconception, evolution of a concept, shows growth or improvement (3) Defend a position and critique a current event.

1.5.7. References

1.5.7.1. A. (2013, November 23). What are the advantages and disadvantages of portfolio assessment? Retrieved January 31, 2016, from http://www.teachthemenglish.com/2013/11/what-are-the-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-portfolio-assessment/

2. Assessment for Learning

2.1. Formative

2.1.1. Defintion

2.1.1.1. Allows teachers to check for understanding during the lesson instead of waiting until completion of a lesson to assess student learning.

2.1.2. Purpose

2.1.2.1. To provide the teacher with a window into students' cognitive processes.

2.1.2.2. Gives the students feedback for a steady opportunity to improve in their assignments

2.1.3. Advantages

2.1.3.1. Detaches the thinking of must get everything right.

2.1.3.2. Serves as a practice for students to get assistance along the way before the final tests

2.1.4. Disadvantages

2.1.4.1. May be difficult to motivate students' performance on low stakes assignment

2.1.4.2. Intensive dedication required to continue ongoing assessment

2.1.5. Assessment for Learning Rationale

2.1.5.1. Formative assessments happen DURING the time of learning rather than at the end.

2.1.5.2. Students are given feedback and advance on how to improve their work.

2.1.6. Examples in AP Chemistry

2.1.6.1. Clarification Pause - A break every 15-20 minutes of lecture where students discuss ideas which each other and clarify their notes.

2.1.6.2. Shared Paragraph - Students are given a few minutes to write a short paragraph in their own words that explains the major ideas discussed that day.

2.1.7. References

2.1.7.1. Timberlake, K. (n.d.). Chemistry. Retrieved January 31, 2016, from http://www.karentimberlake.com/student-centered_classoom.htm

2.2. Peer Assessment

2.2.1. Definition

2.2.1.1. The process where by students grade their peers' assignments based on the teacher's benchmarks.

2.2.2. Purpose

2.2.2.1. Aims to increase student responsibility and strive for a more advantaged and deeper understanding of the subject matter, skills and process.

2.2.2.2. Also lifts the role and status of the student as a passive learner to an active learner and assessor in critical reflection

2.2.3. Advantages

2.2.3.1. When students are involved, there is little confusion about the assignment outcomes.

2.2.3.2. Encourages student involvement and responsibility

2.2.4. Disadvantages

2.2.4.1. Has a high degree of risk with respect to reliability of grades as peer pressure to apply elevated grades or friendship may influence assessment.

2.2.4.2. Student will have the tendency to reward everyone with the same mark.

2.2.5. Assessment for Learning Rationale

2.2.5.1. Teachers use the assessment as an investigable tool to find out as much as they can about what the students know and can do.

2.2.5.2. Teachers can then prevent confusions and preconceptions They can also figure out exactly what is the learning gap of the student with the rest of the class.

2.2.6. Example in AP Chemistry

2.2.6.1. Students can be assigned to create their own procedure for an laboratory experiment. They will then be broken down into pairs to share their answers.

2.2.7. References

2.2.7.1. Self and peer assessment – advantages and disadvantages. (2015, September 09). Retrieved January 30, 2016, from Self and peer assessment – advantages and disadvantages

2.3. Performance-Based

2.3.1. Definition

2.3.1.1. The process of using student activities, rather than tests or surveys to assess skills and knowledge.

2.3.2. Purpose

2.3.2.1. Measures how well the students can apply, or use what they know in real world situations.

2.3.3. Advantages

2.3.3.1. Enables teaches to determine student skills and abilities outside of written assessments.

2.3.3.2. Teachers can determine how to link their teacher to desired learning outcomes

2.3.4. Disadvantages

2.3.4.1. Could be labor intensive. A significant amount of time and care must be set aside for planning.

2.3.4.2. Asessment activities which are separate from the daily routine can be perceived as a distraction.

2.3.5. Assessment of learning Rationale

2.3.5.1. There will be milestones that students need to go through in order to finish the assessment. Each milestone is an opportunity for constructive feedback and work improvement.

2.3.6. Example in AP Chemistry

2.3.6.1. Students can be assigned to create a model of their chemical compound, produce a video and defend it in a debate.

2.3.7. References

2.3.7.1. Ball State University. (n.d.). SECTION 6: USING PERFORMANCE-BASED MEASURES. Retrieved January 31, 2016, from http://cms.bsu.edu/-/media/WWW/DepartmentalContent/Effectiveness/pdfs/Wkbk/WBKM12012 Ch 8.pdf

2.3.7.2. Park, A. (2015, June 23). Performance-Based Assessment: Engaging Students in Chemistry. Retrieved January 31, 2016, from http://www.edutopia.org/practice/performance-based-assessment-engaging-students-chemistry

2.4. Self Assessment

2.4.1. Definition

2.4.1.1. An evaluation of students' of their own work or performance in relationship to an objective standard

2.4.2. Purpose

2.4.2.1. Have the students become realistic judges of their own performance/assignment

2.4.3. Advantages

2.4.3.1. Encourages students to reflect on their role and contribution to the process of the group work.

2.4.3.2. Allows the students to see and reflect on their peers' assessments of their contribution

2.4.4. Disadvantages

2.4.4.1. Assessments can be inflated with can be unreliable

2.4.4.2. Potentially increase the teacher's workload by constantly needing to brief students of the process

2.4.5. Assessment for Learning Rationale

2.4.5.1. Self-assessment can enhance students' motivation and commitment to learning.

2.4.6. Example in AP Chemistry

2.4.6.1. AP Chemistry students can be assigned to evaluate their own lab reports based on a standard rubric.

2.4.6.2. Students can also be given an evaluation sheet of their performance during their lab.

2.4.7. References

2.4.7.1. University of Sydney. (n.d.). Self and peer assessment – advantages and disadvantages. Retrieved January 30, 2016, from http://sydney.edu.au/education_social_work/groupwork/docs/SelfPeerAssessment.pdf