Form and Function

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Form and Function by Mind Map: Form and Function

1. Golden Gate Bridge

1.1. Function

1.1.1. The function of the Golden Gate Bridge is to get across without travelling in the water.

1.2. Form

1.2.1. The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge. It's in California, United States, between San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean. It is 2,737 meters long. It is red, with red wires.

2. Rogers Centre

2.1. Function

2.1.1. The function of the Rogers Centre is to host entertainment and events such as sport games, concerts, celebrations or carnivals.

2.2. Form

2.2.1. The Rogers Centre looks like a large dome. It's in Downtown, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It has a huge field and it can hold 54,000 people inside.

3. Grand Coulee Dam

3.1. Function

3.1.1. The function of the Grand Coulee Dam is that it can produce hydro-electric power. It also provides water for irrigation.

3.2. Form

3.2.1. It is in Washington, United States. It it 1,592 meters long. It looks like a wall in the middle of an ocean, with water going through it.

4. Types of Structure

4.1. Shell Structure

4.1.1. Structures which keep their shapes and can support loads even without a solid mass material supporting it inside. Inside is hollow.

4.1.1.1. An example is an egg because it has a solid layer of protection on the outside but it's hollow on the inside

4.1.1.2. An example is a water bottle because the plastic is the protection for the liquid and it is hollow on the inside to store liquid.

4.2. Solid Structure

4.2.1. A structure that is solid all the way through

4.2.1.1. Another example are glasses because they are made with solid materials.

4.2.1.2. An example is a hockey puck because it is solid all the way through.

4.2.2. An example is a tent because the solid structures are the poles, the frame is the different materials put together to make a bigger structure, and the shell is the tent itself because inside is hollow.

4.3. Frame Structure

4.3.1. A frame structure has a skeleton-like structure made of strong materials.

4.3.1.1. An example is the Eiffel Tower. It is a bunch of pieces and material put together and assembled to make a structure.

4.3.1.2. An example is a spider web because it is built like a skeleton.

4.4. Combination Structure

4.4.1. A structure that is made up of a solid,shell, or frame structure combined

4.4.1.1. An example is the Bird Nest in China. the solid structures are the materials use to build such as metal. the frame structure

4.5. Anything that supports something and has at least one function.

5. Centre of Gravity

5.1. The centre of gravity is where most of the weight is. The structure should also be equally balanced no matter which direction it is.

5.1.1. For example, when a giraffe is standing straight up, the centre of gravity is near the stomach because most of the mass is near that area. Therefore the centre of gravity is lower.

5.1.2. When a giraffe is bending down to drink water, the centre of gravity is near the neck area. But the giraffe doesn't tip over because the legs are spread apart to make a wide base.

6. Load

6.1. Load is the weight acting on a structure.

6.2. Static Load

6.2.1. An example is gravity.

6.2.1.1. Gravity is a natural force that attracts an object or a structure towards the center of the Earth.

6.2.2. Dead Load

6.2.2.1. A type of static load caused by the weight of the structure itself

6.2.2.1.1. If the situation were cars on the highway, the dead load would be the highway because the highway is the structure itself and it can't move.

6.2.2.1.2. If the situation was someone sitting on a chair, then the dead load would be the chair itself

6.2.3. Live Load

6.2.3.1. A type of static load caused by the weight of the objects it supports

6.2.3.1.1. if the situation was someone sitting on a chair, the live load would be the person because the weight can change and move.

6.2.3.1.2. If the situation were cars on a highway, the live load would be the cars that move on the highway because depending on how many cars there are, the weight can change.

6.3. Dynamic Load

6.3.1. Any other forces that can change according to the external forces.

6.3.1.1. If the situation was a school building, the dynamic load would be the snow, rain, wind, hail etc.

6.3.1.2. Another example is an earthquake. It can change according to the external forces.

7. Force

7.1. External Forces

7.1.1. Point of Application

7.1.1.1. The point of application is where on the structure you want to hit it. High,middle, or bottom.

7.1.1.1.1. When you want to destroy a stack of blocks, you would hit near the bottom because it will do the most damage to the rest of the structure.

7.1.1.1.2. When you want to play badminton, you would hit the birdie in the middle of your racquet .

7.1.2. Plane of Application

7.1.2.1. The plane of application is what angle you want to hit the structure on.

7.1.2.1.1. For example, when you kick a soccer ball, you hit the ball from the side of your feet, not at a 90 degres angle

7.1.3. Magnitude

7.1.3.1. The magnitude is how hard you want to hit the structure or how fast in speed you want to hit the structure.

7.1.3.1.1. An example is when you want to hammer a nail, the speed or magnitude should be hard if you want the nail to go in the piece of wood.

7.1.3.1.2. Another example is when you play volleyball, you hit the ball harder if you want it to go to the back of the court, but you hit it softer, if you want it to land right behind the net.

7.1.4. Direction

7.1.4.1. The direction is either a push or a pull.

7.1.4.1.1. Another example is when you play football, and you throw the ball. You don't always throw it 90° straight, you will throw it to whoever is open, which can be any angle.

7.1.4.1.2. When you pull the pop tab to open the can, you are using a pulling force

7.1.4.1.3. When you want to go through a revolving door, you have to push the door in order for it to move.

7.2. Internal Forces

7.2.1. Compression

7.2.1.1. Compression is an internal force that presses or squeezes the particles of an object together

7.2.1.1.1. An example is when you squish clay together and compress it.

7.2.1.1.2. When you want to get the water out of a sponge, you would squeeze the sponge and compress it together.

7.2.2. Tension

7.2.2.1. Tension is an internal force that pulls the particles of an object apart

7.2.2.1.1. When you want to rip a piece of paper in half, you would pull the 2 parts in opposite directions causing it to rip.

7.2.2.1.2. An example is when you play tug of war and you pull the string in 2 different directions.

7.2.3. Torsion

7.2.3.1. Torsion is an internal force that creates a twisting motion that is applied

7.2.3.1.1. An example is when you wring a towel to get the water out. You are twisting the towel constantly until the water comes out.

7.2.3.1.2. Another example is when you are opening the bottle cap. When you turn the cap, torsion is applied to the cap until it is opened.

7.2.4. Shear

7.2.4.1. The bending motion or 2 objects rubbing together in opposite directions

7.2.4.1.1. An example is when you take 2 pieces of cake, and rub it together to make crumbs for cake pops. When you rub the cakes together, you are rubbing it in opposite directions to create shear.

7.2.4.1.2. Another example of shear is when you want to make a paper airplane and you bend the paper to fold it and make creases.

7.3. Force is a push or a pull.

8. Strength

8.1. The ability to withstand forces

8.1.1. For example, you can use triangles to make something stronger.

8.1.2. You could also use ties and struts to make a structure stronger and to resist tension.