# Structures and Forces

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Structures and Forces

## 1. Direction

### 1.1. Any way you can interact with a structure (pushing a chair in, closing the tap when you are washing your hands)

1.1.1. Directions can be used on chairs.

1.1.1.1. You either push or pull on a chair so that the structures can move from one place to another.

1.1.2. Directions can also be used on a sink.

1.1.2.1. Pull the tap up to get water.Push the Tap down to stop the water.

## 2. Magnitude

### 2.1. Plane of application

2.1.1. A side of the structure that is affected by force

2.1.1.1. Plane of application can work on a coke bottle.

2.1.1.1.1. If you put your two hands, one on the top and one on the bottom, and use force to push both hands, the bottle is affected by force.

2.1.1.2. Plane of application could also happen when you push two desks together.

2.1.1.2.1. When two desks are being pushed together, one desk will topple on top the other desk.

### 2.2. the measure of how strong the force is

2.2.1. Here is an example

2.2.1.1. Tapping on the nail with no power is weak and would not be driven in the wood. Tapping on the nail with power and speed is strong enough that the nail would be driven in the wood.

2.2.2. Magnitude can be used on balls. The more power you bounce the ball with, the higher the ball can jump. During a basket-ball game, the player uses a certain amount of power so that the ball won't bounce away.

### 2.3. Point of application

2.3.1. The location where the force meets the structure. (the angle that is contacting the structure)

2.3.1.1. point of application can be used on a soccer ball.

2.3.1.1.1. Kicking the soccer ball at a certain location or angle the soccer ball can roll a certain way. For example kick the soccer ball on the left the ball could go right.

2.3.1.2. Point of application can also be used on t.v. remotes.

2.3.1.2.1. You press up or down to turn up the volume.

3.1.1. Loads that can vary in weight due to gravity, also the weight that the structure supports.

3.1.1.1. (explanation above)

3.1.1.1.1. The difference between these two images (not only the sitting positions) is the weight applied to the chairs. The pull of gravity will make the kid be lighter than the adult.

### 3.2. For example, a baby and an adult sitting on a chair will differ in weight because the baby is lighter than the adult, and the gravitational pull will create a difference in weight between the adult and the baby

3.3.1. it is the weight of the structure itself, it must support it's own weight in order for it not to collapse.

3.3.1.1. For example, a human must be balanced to walk and run

## 4. Different types of forces

### 4.1. External forces

4.1.1. Acts on the object outside the object.

4.1.1.1.1. The effect of gravity on a structure

4.1.1.2.1. Forces that change which has more weight caused by the force of gravity such as: rain, wind, snow, etc

### 4.2. Internal forces

4.2.1. it is caused by the force acting between 2 parts of the structure and the structure acting on itself and other parts.

4.2.1.1. Shear

4.2.1.1.1. A force that pushes the object in different directions

4.2.1.2. Compression

4.2.1.2.1. When the object is being squeezed or pressed together

4.2.1.3. Torsion

4.2.1.3.1. When the object is twisted

4.2.1.4. Tension

4.2.1.4.1. When the object is being stretched which causes it to expand

### 4.3. Force

4.3.1. Any push or pull

4.3.2. Gravity

4.3.2.1. The natural force between two objects, in order to escape the earths Gravitational pull, you must travel at 40,270 km/h. It is also the attraction between objects and the large mass.

4.3.2.1.1. Gravity is a force because it lets structures stay on ground.

## 5. Different structures

### 5.1. Frame structure

5.1.1. This structure Is made when parts are put together such as a wooden frame or a car frame. it is put together by a network that supports each other, a frame structure can be very strong.

5.1.1.1. For example, a car frame

5.1.1.1.1. The car frame strengthens the car so that when it is driving on the road, it will not easily tip over. This car frame gives the builder an easier job to do as it is indicating where to paint the car and install in the parts.

5.1.1.2. Another Example is a wooden house frame

5.1.1.2.1. This frame is made by a network of wood pieces that support each other to make it easier to build the house. It is strengthens the house so it is stronger and won't be knocked away by wind and storms

### 5.2. Solid structures

5.2.1. A solid Structure is solid all the way through, which may weigh more than a shell structure

5.2.1.1. An example of a Solid structure is a sand castle

5.2.1.1.1. This sandcastle is a solid structure. Solid structures are solid all the way through. The sand castle is made of tiny rock pebbles which can harden into a sandcastle when packed together.

5.2.1.2. Another example of a solid structure is a mountain

5.2.1.2.1. These mountains are another example of a solid structure. It is solid all the way through and mountains weighs normally 100 billion tonnes, but large mountains like Everest can weigh around 6 trillion tonnes.

### 5.3. Shell structure

5.3.1. A shell structure is a strong, hollow structure which usually uses little material but are stable and strong just like a solid structure. Int usually has a hollow, shell like shape.

5.3.1.1. This igloo is a type of shell structure

5.3.1.1.1. The igloo is a shell structure because it is made of snow/ice blocks put together to form a hollow structure which resembles a house. The purpose of an igloo is to keep the inuit warm in the harsh winters of Nunavut and so the Inuit won't freeze. The structure is stable because it is formed so when there is pressure applied to the top, it will plummet it's way to the bottom, this is called ____

### 5.4. Centre of Gravity

5.4.1. Every load has a centre of gravity. It is the point that keeps us balanced and upright. It is usually where most of the weight is on our body, the centre of Gravity can move when we change the position of our body

5.4.1.1. The centre of gravity for a taller person is higher than the centre of gravity for a shorter person.

5.4.1.1.1. Because a shorter person is (ahem) a bit shorter than the slightly taller person, they have a lower centre of gravity because most of their weight is located nearer to the bottom, this is also the reason football players crouch while running, so it is harder to knock them down.

### 5.5. Combination structure

5.5.1. A structure that has both shell, frame, and solid which can be manufactured or natural such as a building or a plant or animal.

5.5.1.1. This house is a combination structure

5.5.1.1.1. The house is made up of different components such as a frame structures, solid structures, and Shell Structures. The frame structure is the wooden frame taking the shape of the house, the solid structure could be the bricks outside or the chimney, the house is composed of different structures, and materials.

5.5.1.2. The International Space Station is also a combination structure.

5.5.1.2.1. The ISS made of a combination of different structures such as: a solid structure, a frame structure, and a shell structure. An example of a frame structure is when scientists started to build it, there was a frame structure to secure the ISS. It is made of different materials put together, launched into space.

### 5.6. Structure

5.6.1. Anything made up of parts put together for a particular purpose, when you make a structure, you always think of the function before the form

5.6.1.1. This phone is a structure

5.6.1.1.1. When we invented the phone, the idea in mind was to have a portable device that allows you to receive phone calls, through a wireless connection, and not the form, because if a phone didn't call people, it wouldn't be a use to have a rectangular device that doesn't do anything

5.6.1.2. This pair of shoes is also a structure

5.6.1.2.1. When the shoe was designed 1850, the designer didn't just want a structure that looked cool and pretty, but he did want a structure that can be used so we don't get hurt by stepping on sharp objects and running. If this shoe didn't have a purpose in everyday life, no one would need it.

## 6. Forms and Functions

### 6.1. Form

6.1.1. The shape or visual appearance of an object

6.1.1.1. The form of this castle is very big and wide

6.1.1.1.1. This castle is formed to hold many people, (but mostly royalty). The visual appearance of this building is tall, wide, and large.

6.1.1.2. The form of the magic wand is small and marrow

6.1.1.2.1. The wand was made to look magical with a sticklike appearance. The visual appearance id narrow, long, and circular.

### 6.2. Function

6.2.1. The task or purpose of a structure, always think of the function before you think of the form

6.2.1.1. Here is an example

6.2.1.1.1. This house was designed to allow humans to live in it. That is the purpose of the house.

6.2.1.2. Another example is a bookshelf

6.2.1.2.1. The task of the book shelf is to hold books neatly and tidily.