My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Viewpoints of Education

1.1.1. Conservative Perspective

1.1.1.1. Originated in 19th-century social Darwinist thought

1.1.1.2. Developed by William Graham Sumner

1.1.1.3. Individuals and groups must compete in order to survive, thus the strongest survive

1.1.2. Liberal Perspective

1.1.2.1. Originated in the 20th century and came from the ideas of philosopher John Dewey

1.1.2.2. Concerned with balancing the productivity of capitalism and the social/economic needs of all citizens

1.1.3. Radical Perspective

1.1.3.1. Democratic socialism is superior to free market capitalism

1.1.3.2. The capitalist system is the root of the country's social problems

1.1.4. Neo-Liberal Perspective

1.1.4.1. Has elements of both conservatism and liberalism

1.2. Visions of Education

1.2.1. Traditional

1.2.1.1. Believe that a main purpose of education is to teach traditional values such as hard work and initiative

1.2.2. Progressive

1.2.2.1. A main purpose of education is to teach how to solve social problems

1.2.3. http://www.wingraschool.org/who/progressive.htm

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Early Years

2.1.1. When settlers came to the New World, they brought their ideas about education. Only boys from the wealthiest families had formal schooling; their families typically hired tutors for them and then sent them to a university

2.1.2. First universities in the US

2.1.2.1. Harvard University (1636)

2.1.2.2. College of William and Mary (1693)

2.1.2.3. Yale University (1701)

2.1.3. http://study.com/academy/lesson/education-in-early-america-birth-of-public-schools-and-universities.html

2.2. 1837 - Public education began being offered for free

2.2.1. Led by Horace Mann, a Massachusetts lawyer

2.2.2. Progressive Era - more educational opportunities, particularly for girls

2.2.2.1. http://study.com/academy/lesson/education-during-the-progressive-era-reform-growth-of-urban-education.html

2.3. 1821 - Emma Hart Willard opened the first school for women, the Troy Female Seminary in Troy, New York

2.4. 1890s

2.4.1. Public high schools became increasingly more common. States began making it compulsory up to the age of sixteen

2.5. 1918

2.5.1. High school became compulsory in all states

2.6. Post World War II

2.6.1. Debate over the goals of education (academic vs. social)

2.6.1.1. Traditionalists (academic)- believed in knowledge-centered education, a traditional subject-centered curriculum, and authority

2.6.1.2. Progressive (social)- believed in a curriculum that was more student-centered and responded more to their needs

2.7. 1960s

2.7.1. Civil Rights Movement, which included integrating the schools

2.7.2. A shift toward the progressive side occurred

2.7.3. The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 was passed to emphasize the education of disadvantaged students

2.7.4. Many colleges adopted the policy of open enrollment

2.8. 1980s - Present

2.8.1. "A Nation at Risk" was published in 1983, citing high rates of adult illiteracy and expressing concerns over the education system

2.8.2. Reforms included President Clinton's Goals 2000 (1994) and President Bush's No Child Left Behind

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Theoretical Perspectives of Education

3.1.1. Functionalist Perspective

3.1.1.1. All aspects of society have a purpose and work with each other. Education is important because it socalizes students, teaches them values that they will carry for the rest of their lives, and sorts students according to their abilities

3.1.2. Conflict Perspective

3.1.2.1. View the relation between school and society as more negative. Some students are disadvantaged and struggle because of those higher up in power

3.1.2.2. Standardized testing promotes social inequality

3.1.3. Interactionist Perspective

3.1.3.1. Is more analytical than the other two perspectives

3.1.3.2. Focuses on social interaction in schools and believes that the school's expectations influence children a great deal

3.1.4. http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/a-primer-on-social-problems/s14-02-sociological-perspectives-on-e.html

3.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

3.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes

3.2.1.1. Differences in schools are related to differences in outcomes for students

3.2.1.2. Students who have more help and resources have a better attitude towards school and higher achievment levels

3.2.2. Employment

3.2.2.1. In general, those who do well in school and graduate from college have greater employment opportunities

3.2.2.2. Some inequality - college-educated women earn less than college-educated men

3.2.3. Education and Mobility

3.2.3.1. Occupational and social mobility begin with education

3.2.3.2. Both the number of years of education and where someone goes to school affects a person's mobility

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Generic Notions

4.1.1. Idealism

4.1.1.1. According to Plato, education is important because it helps move individuals toward acheiving good

4.1.2. Realism

4.1.2.1. Reject the idea that only ideas are real; the material world/matter is real as well

4.1.3. Pragmatism

4.1.3.1. founded on modern-day psychology and behaviorism

4.1.3.2. We can make society and the world a better place by providing good education to students

4.1.4. Existentialism

4.1.4.1. Individualistic philosophy

4.1.4.2. Poses questions as to how their concerns impact on the lives of individuals

4.1.5. Neo-Marxism

4.1.5.1. Based on the critique of capitalism

4.1.5.2. In a capitalist society, education encourages dominance of the upper class and inequality among others

4.2. Key Researchers

4.2.1. Plato (Idealism)

4.2.1.1. Searched for truth in abstract questions

4.2.1.2. Education should help people move towards acheiving good and making the world better

4.2.2. St Augustine (Idealism)

4.2.2.1. Added religion to classical idealism

4.2.3. Aristotle (Realism)

4.2.3.1. Disagreed with Plato's notion that only ideas are real and believed the material world was real as well

4.2.3.2. Developed a rational, systematic method for testing the logic of statements that people make

4.2.4. John Dewey (pragmatism)

4.2.4.1. Ideas were infuenced by the theory of evolution

4.2.5. Edmund Husserl - existentlialism was primarily developed by him

4.2.6. Karl Marx - the foundations of Neo-Marxism are found in his works and theories

4.3. Goal of Education

4.3.1. Idealism

4.3.1.1. Students should search for the truth through ideas rather than through the world

4.3.1.2. Students should search for truth as individuals

4.3.1.3. Students should share the truth that they find with others so that they can change lives

4.3.2. Realism

4.3.2.1. Goal is to help students understand and learn by applying the principles of science

4.3.2.2. http://study.com/academy/lesson/realism-overview-practical-teaching-examples.html

4.3.3. Pragmatism

4.3.3.1. Students should be educated in things such as morals and social skills, not just academics

4.3.3.2. Focuses on the whole child - intellectual, physical, spiritual, and emotional development

4.3.4. Existentialism

4.3.4.1. Education should focus on the needs of individuals (cognitively and affectively)

4.3.4.2. Should focus on the rational and non-rational world

4.3.4.3. Focuses on how to solve problems in the world

4.3.5. Neo-Marxism

4.3.5.1. Reproduction theories - in a captalist society, education should reproduce the economic, social, and political status quo

4.3.5.2. Resistance theories - believe that schools reproduce these qualities, but believe that students should be given the ability to question it

4.3.6. http://study.com/academy/lesson/pragmatism-overview-practical-teaching-examples.html

4.4. Role of Teacher

4.4.1. Idealism

4.4.1.1. The teacher should analyze and discuss ideas with students so that students can understand

4.4.1.2. Teacher plays an active role in discussion by making questions, materials, and an ideal environment for the students

4.4.1.3. Reminiscence - the role of a teacher is to "bring out that of which is already in the student's mind"

4.4.1.4. Teacher should be a role model to students

4.4.2. Realism

4.4.2.1. Teachers should teach basic academic disciplines and be knowledgeable in them; should transmit knowledge to students

4.4.2.2. Should teach science, mathematics, and humanities

4.4.2.3. Should teach students to effectively evaluate poetry and other forms of art

4.4.3. Pragmatism

4.4.3.1. The teacher is more of a facilitator than an authoritarian figure

4.4.3.2. Encourages, offers suggestions, and helps students plan and implement courses of study

4.4.4. Existentialism

4.4.4.1. Teachers should understand both themselves, and their students and the lives that they live

4.4.4.2. Teachers should take risks and never give up on teaching any student

4.4.5. Neo-Marxism

4.4.5.1. Teachers and students are part of a pedagogical process

4.4.5.2. Teacher should engage students in a critical examination of the world

4.5. Method of Instruction

4.5.1. Idealism

4.5.1.1. Teachers lecture from time to time

4.5.1.2. Mostly use the dialectic approach

4.5.1.3. Students are encouraged to discuss, analyze, and synthesize, and apply what they have read and learned in real life outside of the classroom

4.5.2. Realism

4.5.2.1. Supports lectures and question & answer

4.5.2.2. Competancy-based assessment

4.5.3. Pragmatism

4.5.3.1. Lectures are not effectve

4.5.3.2. Children learn both individually and in groups

4.5.3.3. Uses problem-solving/inquiry method in which students start out posting questions about what they want to know when learning something new

4.5.4. Existentialism

4.5.4.1. Learning is personal

4.5.4.2. Each child has a different learning style and a teacher should make an effort to see what works for each child

4.5.4.3. Teachers and students collaborate and learn cooperatively

4.5.5. Neo-Marxism

4.5.5.1. Dialetical approach with question-and-answer method

4.6. Curriculum

4.6.1. Idealism

4.6.1.1. A lot of emphasis on the study of classic literature from past civilizations, since modern-day problems have their root in the past and these old stories can help us

4.6.1.2. Support the back-to-basics approach to education which emphasizes the the three R's - reading, writing, and arithmetic

4.6.2. Realism

4.6.2.1. Basics: Science, math, reading, writing, and humanities

4.6.2.2. Students need to master these subjects in order to be a part of society

4.6.3. Pragmatism

4.6.3.1. All subjects are incorporated into lessons

4.6.3.2. Should be based on the student's interests and individual needs

4.6.4. Existentialism

4.6.4.1. A lot of emphasis on humanities

4.6.4.2. Literature, art, drama, and music are important and encourage personal interaction

4.6.5. Neo-Marxism

4.6.5.1. Curriculum is socially constructed

4.6.5.2. It is an organized and codified representation of what those with the power to shape it want the students to know

4.7. http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/PP3.html

4.8. http://ctle.hccs.edu/facultyportal/tlp/seminars/tl1071SupportiveResources/comparison_edu_philo.pdf

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Local superintindent: Dr. Dee Fowler

5.2. Local school board members: Dr. Terri Johnson, Ms. Ranae Bartlett, Mrs. Connie Cox Spears, Mr. David Hergenroeder, Mr. Tim Holtcamp

5.3. State superintindent: Thomas R. Bice

5.4. Senators: Richard Shelby, Jefferson Sessions

5.5. Representatives: Bradley Byrne, Martha Roby, Mike Rogers, Robert Aderholt, Mo Brooks, Gary Palmer, Terri Sewell

5.6. Schools in the US vs. Germany

5.6.1. The educational systems in the US and Germany are significantly different.

5.6.2. Germany selects and sorts students at a young age and eventually groups them into different secondary schools. In the US, students are not often grouped by academic ability and usually aren't encouraged to really think about career paths until high school. In the US, elementary schools are more untracked while secondary schools are tracked; in Germany, it tends to be the opposite.

5.6.3. http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/compare/Germany/United-States/Education

5.7. Key Terms

5.7.1. Structure - includes the governance, size, degree of centralization, and student composition in a school

5.7.2. Governance - how involved the federal government is in a school system

5.7.3. Size/Degree of Centralization - the size of a school system and how the students are distributed throughout

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Sociology of the Curriculum

6.1.1. Focuses on why the curriculum is taught, not just what is taught

6.1.2. Curriculum is not value neutral

6.2. Politics of the Curriculum

6.2.1. analyzes the struggles over different conceptions of what should be taught

6.2.2. Questions who should shape the curriculum

6.3. History/Philosophy of the Curriculum

6.3.1. Explains how the curriculum has evolved and come to be what it is today

6.4. Multicultural Education

6.4.1. the humanist curriculum was too male-dominated and Eurocentric

6.4.2. Believes curriculum should be more representative and responsive to the cultural diversity that exists in the country

6.4.3. According to Geneva Gay (1995), students do not succeed unless their culture is accepted by others and they are allowed to keep their own cultural identity

6.5. Hidden Curriculum

6.5.1. Not officially part of the school curriculum, but the unintended values and lessons that students learn in school (a "side effect" of education)

6.6. Null Curriculum

6.6.1. Things that are left or ommitted from the curriculum due to factors such as teacher's biases or lack of knowledge, or pressure or even a mandate from a higher authority to not teach it

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Educational achievement

7.1.1. Academic achievement of students from different backgrounds is something that sociologists frequently research

7.1.2. Class

7.1.2.1. Educational experiences and outcomes are often different for students in different social classes.

7.1.2.2. Upper and middle class children tend to be given higher expectations

7.1.2.3. Since higher education is expensive, students from wealthy families have more opportunities to attend

7.1.2.4. Children from working class and uncerclass families are more likely to struggle, underachieve, and drop out

7.1.2.5. http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/may13/vol70/num08/The-Widening-Income-Achievement-Gap.aspx

7.1.3. Race

7.1.3.1. The US is still stratified by race, and studies show that a student's race impacts their educational achievement

7.1.3.2. African-Americans and Hispanics are statistically more likely to drop out of school than whites

7.1.3.3. Researchers believe that minorities do not receieve the same educational opportunities as whites, which is an explanation for why they underachieve

7.1.3.4. http://www.dailycal.org/2013/11/25/racial-achievement-gap-berkeley-public-schools-persists/

7.2. Gender

7.2.1. Historically, women did not attain the same level of education as men and were not expected to

7.2.2. More women are now attending college, and gender differences between men and women have reduced greatly in the past 20 years

7.2.3. Women are less likely to drop out of school and have higher levels of reading proficiency than men, but men have higher levels of math and science proficiency

7.3. Special Needs

7.3.1. In the last 50 years, parents of special needs children have pushed for them to be allowed in mainstream schools and given equal opportunities to other students

7.3.2. Laws passed

7.3.2.1. Education of All Handicapped Children Law (1975) - states that children with disabilities have the right of access to public education and individualized services

7.3.2.2. Regular Education Initiative (late 1980s) - called for putting children with diabilities in mainstream classrooms

7.3.3. There are still students who have been placed in special education classes and had their educational opportunities severely limited

7.3.3.1. Some special needs students benefit more from being in special education classrooms, while others do better in mainstream classrooms, so it is a better idea for students to be placed on a case-by-case basis

7.3.3.2. http://www.brighthubeducation.com/special-ed-inclusion-strategies/66813-the-differences-between-mainstreaming-and-inclusion/

7.4. Coleman Study

7.4.1. Performed in 1966

7.4.2. James Coleman studied the relationship between organizational characteristics of schools and student achievement and wanted to prove that African American and white students had very different experiences and opportunities in school.

7.4.3. He found that the largest determining factor in achievement was social class; students who attended schools with mostly middle class students performed better than students at schools with mostly lower class students.

7.4.4. Found that students in private schools often have better acheivement because they are given higher expectations

7.5. Key Terms

7.5.1. Equality of opportunity - the notion that all people should be treated equally rather than be in a hierarchy based on class

7.5.1.1. Social stratification - the hierarchial configuration of families

7.5.2. Educational outcomes - the goals for learning and development upon which education programs are based

7.5.3. Achievement gap - the persistent disparity of educational achievement between different groups of students, particularly those of different races and social classes

7.5.4. Social reproduction - refers to when social inequality gets passed from one generation to the next

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Unequal achievement

8.1.1. School-Centered Explanations

8.1.1.1. Students at schools in poor inner cities have less opportunities to achieve than students in schools in affluent areas due to lack of financing

8.1.1.2. Another explanation is that some schools do not have high enough expectations for their students

8.1.1.3. Ineffective leadership on the principal's part and little accountability for both teachers and students can also be a cause

8.1.1.4. Some schools tend to divide students up by ability, and sometimes even race, class, or gender. Students in the lower groups are assumed to not be capable of succeeding, and thus are never encouraged to

8.1.2. Student-Centered Explanations

8.1.2.1. Very controversial

8.1.2.2. One theory, and the most controversial one, is genetic differences. It argues that minorities are simply less intelligent and thus have lower achievement in school

8.1.2.3. Cultural Deprivation - working class and minority families have a deprived culture and children come to school without proper preparation

8.1.2.4. Cultural Difference - children come to school unprepared not because of their families or home lives, but because of opression and problems in society such as poverty, racism, and discrimination

8.2. Key Terms

8.2.1. Student-Centered - theories of educational inequality which focus on factors outside of school such as family, culture, and peers

8.2.2. School-Centered - theories of educational inequality that focus on factors in schools such as expectations, financing, school climate, and pedagogic practices

8.2.3. School climate - the quality and character of school life; refers to the school's norms, values, goals, and relationships

8.2.4. Ability Grouping - grouping students together based on their talents and academic skill

8.2.4.1. http://study.com/academy/lesson/ability-grouping-and-tracking-in-schools-advantages-and-disadvantages.html

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Types of School-Based Reforms

9.1.1. Charter schools - public schools that are free from regulations applied to traditional public schools, and teachers are held accountable for their students' performance in exchange

9.1.1.1. a good alternative for low-income/inner city children

9.1.1.2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hIiM7L8u1yY

9.1.2. Vouchers

9.1.2.1. a certificate of government funding for a student at a school chosen by his or her parents

9.1.3. Teacher Education

9.1.3.1. Proposed that lack of teacher training and quality is a major cause of failing schools

9.1.3.2. Sought to make standards for teacher education programs higher

9.1.3.3. Sought to recruit and retain high quality teachers

9.2. School-Business Partnerships

9.2.1. schools and businesses work together to benefit students and teachers.

9.2.2. Was started in an attempt to produce better graduates from the school system who can contribute to revitalization in the US

9.3. Privatization

9.3.1. private education companies become involved in public education, and take over the management of failing public schools

9.4. School-to-Work Programs

9.4.1. Schools extended vocational emphasis to non-college-bound students and sought to teach them skills necessary for employment

9.4.2. Allows students to explore different careers and learn skills required for them

9.4.3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6q5RKjh0G5Y

9.5. Societal, Economic, Community, and Political Reforms

9.5.1. State Intervention/Mayoral Control in Local School Districts

9.5.1.1. States impose rules and regulations; they are responsible for certification of school personnel, statewide testing, and monitoring of schools

9.5.2. School Finance Reforms

9.5.2.1. Seeks to provide better funding to help eliminate educational inequality

9.5.3. Full Service and Community Schools

9.5.3.1. Seeks to educate not just the whole child, but the whole community by meeting all students' educational, physical, psychological, and social needs between school and community services

9.5.4. Harlem Children's Zone

9.5.4.1. Seeks to keep students in their familiar neighborhoods/communities rather than removing them

9.6. Key Terms

9.6.1. Goals 2000

9.6.1.1. Goals set in 1990 to have schools reformed in many ways by 2000 (at least 90 percent of students graduating, all children coming to school prepared, getting students more ahead in math and science, and producing literate adults)

9.6.2. No Child Left Behind

9.6.2.1. Signed in 2001, and was a controversial legistlation that mandated annual testing and held teachers and schools accountable for scores

9.6.3. Race to the Top

9.6.3.1. a fund which aids states in meeting No Child Left Behind Standards

9.6.3.2. Goals: To improve low-achieving schools, adopt assessments that better prepare students for college and the workplace, build data systems that measure student growth, and rewarding effective teachers and principals