must be recognized
must hear and understand the language
participants must have the right intentions
if the context and roles of participants are recognized it does not necessarily mean that the speech act is successful e.g. a performance
speech acts and their linguistic realisations are culturally bound, depending on the cultural background a gesture/custom could be an insult or a compliment, 'How fat you are!' -India:compliment -Europe: insult
Locutionary act, 'what is said'
Illocutionary force, 'expressing intentions'
Perlocutionary effect, 'effect on the hearer, hearer's reaction'
(Performative hypothesis, abandoned later), contains 'performative verb', making the illocutionary force explicit
Declarations, change the world, 'I bet', 'I resign', 'I declare'
Representatives, states the speaker's believes, 'I came; I saw; I conquered'
Commissives, commits speaker's future actions, 'promising', 'threatening', 'refusing'
Directives, making the hearer do something, 'commanding', 'requesting', 'inviting'
Expressives, stating the speaker's feelings, 'apologising', 'praising', 'regretting'