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SPEECH ACTS by Mind Map: SPEECH ACTS
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SPEECH ACTS

Felicity conditions

Context and roles of participants

must be recognized

must hear and understand the language

participants must have the right intentions

if the context and roles of participants are recognized it does not necessarily mean that the speech act is successful e.g. a performance

Indirect speech acts

a different meaning from the apparent surface meaning

form and function are not directly related

part of everyday life

express politeness

communicate the literal meaning that the words conventionally express

Interactional/transactional function

Social dimension

Cultural dimension

speech acts and their linguistic realisations are culturally bound, depending on the cultural background a gesture/custom could be an insult or a compliment, 'How fat you are!' -India:compliment -Europe: insult

Direct speech acts

Speech act theory (Austin)

Locutionary act, 'what is said'

Illocutionary force, 'expressing intentions'

Perlocutionary effect, 'effect on the hearer, hearer's reaction'

(Performative hypothesis, abandoned later), contains 'performative verb', making the illocutionary force explicit

Classes (Searle)

Declarations, change the world, 'I bet', 'I resign', 'I declare'

Representatives, states the speaker's believes, 'I came; I saw; I conquered'

Commissives, commits speaker's future actions, 'promising', 'threatening', 'refusing'

Directives, making the hearer do something, 'commanding', 'requesting', 'inviting'

Expressives, stating the speaker's feelings, 'apologising', 'praising', 'regretting'