Chapter 7 - Assessing Learning

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Chapter 7 - Assessing Learning by Mind Map: Chapter 7 - Assessing Learning

1. Assessment vs. Evaluation

1.1. Assessment: the measurement of student learning

1.1.1. determines what has been learned

1.1.2. done formatively

1.1.3. done summatively

1.1.4. results allow everyone to gauge the progress of the learner toward reading the outcomes

1.2. Well done assessments can help continually evaluate the instruction itself

1.3. Evaluation: the appraisal of the success of the instruction itself

1.3.1. process of determining whether something fulfills what it is designed to do

2. Design different types of assessments for specific purposes

2.1. Three basic purposes:

2.1.1. Appraisal: assessment of learning

2.1.1.1. traditionally summative assessment, done at the end of instruciton

2.1.2. Diagnosis and guidance: assessment for learning

2.1.2.1. collection of data before instruction and during instruction (formative assessments)

2.1.3. Fostering the learner's metacognition: assessment as learning

2.1.3.1. assess's student's thinking about his or own learning, what strategies she uses to support or challenge that learning, and the mechanisms she uses to adjust and advance her learning

2.2. Other assessment types

2.2.1. Norm-referenced: measure the performance of a learner against others in the same learner group

2.2.1.1. SAT, ACT

2.2.2. Criterion-referenced: absolute measures based on specific criteria, specific passing/failing scores

2.2.2.1. tools for educators to use in deigning and revising instruciton

2.2.3. Formal assessments: administered and graded using established scoring and interpretation rules

2.2.3.1. standardized tests, certification tests

2.2.4. Informal assessments: to gauge and improve learning through unofficial practices such as questioning, discussions, observations, peer- or self-assessments

2.2.4.1. ungraded tests, mind-map exercises

2.2.5. Traditional: assessments that learners choose a response from a given list (multiple choice, true/false, short answer, labeling)

2.2.6. Alternative: learners must create a response to a question or task; holistic, authentic, integrative

2.2.6.1. lengthy descriptive responses to open-ended questions, construction of a project, writing a paper, performance of a skill, problem solving, mind map, portfolio, games, badges/points

2.2.6.2. can be difficult to grade

2.2.6.2.1. rubric: checklist of criteria

2.2.6.2.2. non-graded self-assessments

2.2.6.2.3. peer assessments: peers review each other's work and assess or comment on it

3. Align assessments to the learning outcomes

3.1. ***alignment of assessments and outcomes is important***

3.2. assessments should link to applicable standards or institutional learning criteria

3.3. they should be a learning experience for both the learner and the designer

3.4. be known in advance

4. Design assessments that reflect chosen pedagogical approach

4.1. Constructivist

4.1.1. applicable for content that is less structure, still emerging, unstable

4.1.2. learning during the test itself

4.1.3. peer and self-assessments

4.2. Connectivitist

4.2.1. difficult to define

4.2.2. reject idea that there is a specific body of content that should be acquired or remembered

4.2.3. stresses the immersion of learners in a community of practice and learning by example

4.2.4. typically record their learning and analyze it

4.2.5. participation/interaction; clarity of communication; contributions; peer ratings; development of an effective network; growth of capacities and aptitudes

5. Plan for effective practice and feedback

5.1. formative assessments, homework

5.1.1. types of practice for the learners

5.2. feedback is evaluative

5.2.1. effective feedback is specific, frequent, and timely (preferably immediate)

6. Use assessment data to evaluate your instruction

6.1. K-12 has become more data driven; uses data to do a variety of things

6.1.1. measure student progress; measure program effectiveness; promote accountability; allocate resources; show trends, etc.

7. Streamlining:

7.1. Sustainable: build assessments around the use of existing job aids or job aids you intend to develop

7.2. optimized #1: start backwards by designing and gaining approval for the assessments before defining the learning outcomes

7.3. optimized #2: speed up design review by creating one table of aligned outcomes, assessments, and teaching/learning strategies

7.4. appropriately redundant: shoudl be designed to proved alternatives to allow for the accommodation of learners with disabilities

7.5. Right-sized: appropriate length and level of complexity

7.6. Continuous improvement #1: field test with stakeholders, SMEs, and representatives of your learners

7.7. Continuous improvement #2: obtain stakeholder and SME approval of your match outcomes and assessments