My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Conservative

1.1.1. Conservatism is viewed as a process tat enables the strongest to survive. It looks at the human and social evolutions as the different changes to the environment. This view requires competition and states that human progress is dependent on ones drive.

1.2. Liberal

1.2.1. This view became popular during Roosevelt's presidency. This view is referred to the New Deal era. Liberalism is mostly concerned with economic productivity of capitalism of the people in the U.S.

1.3. Radical

1.3.1. Radicalism does not believe that free market capitalism is the best for of economic organization. They believe the democratic socialism is the most fair way for political-economic systems.

1.4. Neo-liberal

1.5. Traditional

1.5.1. Traditionalists believe that schools should pass on the best of what was and what is.

1.6. Progressive

1.6.1. The believers of the schools should continuously progress in order to make things better.

2. Schools as Organizations

2.1. Alabama State Senators

2.1.1. Richard Shelby

2.1.2. Jefferson Sessions

2.2. Alabama House of Representatives

2.2.1. Ritchie Whorton

2.3. Alabama State Superintendent

2.3.1. Tommy Bice

2.4. Alabama Representative on State School Board

2.5. Madison County Superintendent

2.5.1. Matt Massey

2.6. Madison County School Board Member

2.6.1. Dan Nash

2.7. Finland

2.7.1. Abolished almost all standardized testing, whereas we continue to assess using this form of testing.

2.7.2. Finland has some o the highest exam scores in basic subjects.

2.7.3. Finland uses formative evaluation, where progress is tracked orally through student/teacher dialogue. In the U.S. they use all forms of assessment to track progress.

2.7.4. The U.S. uses PISA and continues to have large gaps in scoring, and Finland is an example of good organization for higher test scores.

2.7.5. Only 15 percent of college grads who apply for teaching programs get admitted.

2.7.6. Finnish teachers receive higher wages that are competitive and are treated with a high level of professionalism. U.S. teachers are typically underpaid and do not receive the credit they deserve.

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2.7.8. <iframe width="420" height="315" src="" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>

2.8. School Processes/Cultures

2.8.1. Definite population

2.8.2. Clearly defined political structure

2.8.3. Social relationships

2.8.4. "We feeling"

2.8.5. Culture is their own

3. Curriculum and Pedagogy

3.1. Humanist Curriculum

3.1.1. Reflects idealism of the liberal arts. Education presents the best of what is thought and written.

3.2. Social Efficiency Curriculum

3.2.1. Mass public secondary education.

3.2.2. Students with different needs, should receive different types of schooling.

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3.3. Developmentalist Curriculum

3.3.1. Needs of the students, instead of the needs of society.

3.3.2. Dewey's writings that stated the relationship between the child and curriculum.

3.3.3. Schooling related to real life experiences.

3.4. Social Meliorist Curriculum

3.4.1. Social reconstruction. <iframe width="560" height="315" src="" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>

3.4.2. Contemporary critical curriculum theory Stresses moving students to become aware of problems within society.

3.4.3. This curriculum is not typically seen within public schools.

3.5. The Sociology of the Curriculum

3.5.1. Not only what is taught, but why it is taught.

3.5.2. What is being taught is being related to society.

3.6. Pedagogic Practices

3.6.1. Mimetic Method Purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to students.

3.6.2. Didactic Method Lecture or presentation as main form of communication.

3.6.3. Transformative Method Change the students in a meaningful way.

4. History of the U.S. Education

4.1. Old World and New World Education

4.1.1. Europeans believed that only the sons of the rich required an education because they would one day be in the ruling class. Education in the middle colonies was extremely diverse when compared to the Puritans. The South was confined to the upper class being educated and the Native Americans were strictly those of missionary duties.

4.2. Development Stage 1

4.2.1. Define actions as necessary

4.3. The Age of Reform

4.3.1. This period took place during 1820-1860. Men had just gained the privilege to vote.

4.3.2. Horace Mann led the struggle for free public education. His argument for common school showed concern for stability and order. Liberals and conservatives viewed Mann as one of the greatest American educational reformers.

4.3.3. People that were interested in education became aware that the schools has been created by pre-war generations and realized they were not operating correctly.

4.4. Education for Women and African Americans

4.4.1. Education was viewed as biologically harmful and too stressful for women. Their educational opportunities were very limited. Troy Female Seminary was opened by Emma Hart Willard in 1821. This school was thought to provide a similar education as the one men were receiving.

4.4.2. Oberlin Collegiate Institute in Ohio allowed women as well as African-Americans in 1833. Even after the Civil War, it was still hard for African-Americans to become educated. The Ku Klux Klan, Jim Crow Laws, and Black Codes still spread hatred towards Blacks. School segregation still continued to be an issue in the remainder of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

4.5. Cycles of Reform

4.5.1. During this time, the focus was on education and its goals. "The great debate" took place during this time and ended with the launching of Sputnik, a space satellite. The anti-Vietnam War and Civil Rights movements made colleges and universities their sites for protesting.

4.6. Equality of Opportunity

4.6.1. After the Second World War, education opportunities for serviceman and women became important. The GI Bill became available to the men and women, and offered them the opportunity to pursue higher education.

5. Sociological of Education

5.1. Facts are gathered about sociology. The tools for sociology are thought of as empirical and conceptual. The need sociological perspective is important in order for teachers to understand the connection of schooling and society. It helps to explain why students act the way they do inside and outside of school.

5.2. The Relation between School and Society

5.2.1. Schools are known to shape children's perspective of the world we live in by processes of socialization.

5.2.2. Schools tend to promote gender definitions and stereotypes when they divide the after school activities by gender, or when teachers let group discussion become more male dominant.

5.3. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

5.3.1. Graduating from college will lead to more employment opportunities. Higher education helps individuals to obtain higher positions early on in their careers. Higher education has also proven to provide the individual with a higher salary.

5.3.2. When a student attends a larger school, they have more in the way of facilities. Where if the student attended a smaller school, they lack resources.

5.3.3. Teachers behavior is a factor of how students learn and behave. Student achievement has been said to improve greatly when the teachers expectations are direct. Praising the student and demanding more has proven to make the students learn more and feel better about themselves.

5.3.4. Gender causes discrimination inside and outside of schools. Men are generally higher paid than women for the same work. Females self-esteem has also been proven to lower at the end of the school year due to something occurring inside of the learning environment. Gender, race, ethnicity and age all play factors of discrimination.

6. Equality of Opportunity

6.1. Calculating Educational and Life Outcomes

6.1.1. Caste stratification Social level is defined in terms of race and/or religious worth.

6.1.2. Estate stratification Social level is defined in terms of family worth.

6.1.3. Class stratification Social level is defined in terms of hierarchy achievements.

6.1.4. Class Students that come from different social classes have different educational experiences.

6.1.5. Race Individuals race has a direct impact on how much education they will receive.

6.1.6. Gender Gender affected an individuals education experiences back in time.

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6.2. Students with Special Needs

6.2.1. Debates occur regarding students with special needs and the educational opportunities they should have.

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6.3. School Differences and Educational Outcomes

6.3.1. Studies are still working to see if differences between schools actually leads to differences in terms of student outcomes.

6.4. The Coleman Study (1966)

6.4.1. James Coleman studied the comparison of differences among schools.

6.4.2. Researchers examined the effects of magnet schools on student learning.

6.4.3. Studies have compared public and private schools, and concluded that private schools "do it better."

6.4.4. Racial and socioeconomic differences were compared also.

6.4.5. Racial and socioeconomic differences were compared also.

7. Philosophy of Education

7.1. Idealism

7.1.1. Plato was the main philosopher

7.1.2. Believe to move individuals toward achieving the good.

7.1.3. Plato used dialectic to move individuals from a world of matter to the world of ideas.

7.1.4. The goal of this philosophy search for truth through ideas instead of examining false world matter.

7.1.5. Teachers promote ideas and provide discussion. They engage the students by asking questions and selecting material.

7.1.6. Teachers are the role models for the classroom.

7.1.7. Instruction is performed through lecture, as well as discussion. Students may work in groups or individually.

7.1.8. Curriculum is based on the study of classics, such as literature.

7.2. Realism

7.2.1. Both Plato and Aristotle played a role in this philosophy, but Aristotle had more to do with it.

7.2.2. Plato believed the centrality of ides. Aristotle instead believed studying to prove clarity of material.

7.2.3. Aristotle believed to begin with the world of matter.

7.2.4. Teachers should have a solid ground in science, math, and humanities. Ideas should be presented in a clear and consistent manner.

7.2.5. Teachers should be steeped in basic academic discipline.

7.2.6. Instruction should be presented within lecture, question, and answer. Assessment must be conducted in order to ensure students are learning.

7.2.7. Curriculum includes the basics.

7.2.8. Neo-Thomism, Modern Realism, and Contemporary Realists.

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7.3. Pragmatism

7.3.1. Instrumentalism and experimentalism

7.3.2. Founder: Dewey

7.3.3. provides students with knowledge of how to improve the social order and integrate them into a democratic society.

7.3.4. Teacher is no longer an authoritarian figure Encourages, offers suggestion, questions, and helps plan and implement course of study

7.3.5. Students learn individually and in groups. Students pose questions about what they want to know.

7.3.6. Follows core or integrated curriculum. Subjects should intertwine with learning.

7.4. Existentialism

7.4.1. Individualist philosophy

7.4.2. Soren Kierkergarrd is the founder

7.4.3. Education should focus on cognitive and affective needs of individuals Emphasize notion of possibility among students

7.4.4. The teacher will task risks, work with resistant students, and try to enable students to become wide awake.

7.4.5. Really personal method of instructions and emphasize on different learning styles.

7.4.6. Curriculum will be heavily based with humanities.

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7.5. Neo-Marxism

7.5.1. Founded by Karl Marx; every new economic system moved civilization closer to his ideal society

7.5.2. Reproduction and Resistance theories Education should transform the dominant culture.

7.5.3. Teacher should become a "transformative intellectual" Engages students in critical examination of the world

7.5.4. Favors a dialectical approach to instruction using question and answer method

7.5.5. Curriculum is not objective or value free and is critical of capitalism

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Unequal Education Achievement

8.1.1. Functionalist vs. Conflict Theroist Functionalist believe the role of school is to provide fair selection process for sorting out the brightest individuals. Conflict theorist believe the role of school is to reproduce inequality.

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8.2. Student centered explanations

8.2.1. conventional liberal wisdom was far to simplistic

8.2.2. far more significant differences in academic performance among students in the same school that among students in different schools

8.3. Genetic differences

8.3.1. unequal education by working class and non-white students is due to genetic differences and intelligence

8.4. Culture deprivation theories

8.4.1. popular in the 1960's

8.4.2. suggest working class an non-white families often lack the culture resources for education

8.5. Culture difference theories

8.5.1. theorist agree that there are differences between working class and non-white students and white middle class students

8.6. School financing

8.6.1. Jonathan Kozol documented the many differences in funding between wealthy and poor schools

8.6.2. he called for equalization in school financing

8.6.3. wealthier schools were able to provide better resources

8.7. Effective school research

8.7.1. Effective school literature high expectations strong and effective leadership accountability monitoring learning progress teacher-student realtionships flexibility for experiment

8.8. Curriculum and Pedagogic practices

8.8.1. working class is far more likely to have teacher directed pedagogic practices

8.9. Curriculum and ability grouping

8.9.1. Shanker stated education in the U.S. assumes that students in the lower tracks are not capable of doing academic work

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9. Educational Reform

9.1. Reforms shifted from the federal to the state to the local levels.

9.2. Reforms consisted of two waves of reform.

9.3. The reforms were aimed mostly towards assessment procedures.

9.4. Federal Involvement in Education

9.4.1. G. Bush with help announced six national goals for U.S. education by the year of 2000. children will start school ready to learn graduation rate will increase children will leave grades 4,8, and 12 demonstrating understanding in challenging subject matter U.S. students will leave in math and science every American adult will be literate every school will be drug/violence free

9.5. No Child Left Behind

9.5.1. far-reaching consequences for education in the U.S.

9.5.2. represented an extension of standards

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9.6. Race to the Top

9.6.1. plans to close achievement gaps

9.6.2. funds will aid states as they work to meet NCLD mandates

9.6.3. improve student outcomes

9.6.4. Obama has had an impact on this plan

9.7. Approaches to Reform

9.7.1. represented by the Education Equity Project

9.7.2. stresses the independent power of schools in eliminating the achievement gaps

9.7.3. "working to create an effective school for every child"

9.7.4. many argued that schools are limited institutions for eradicating the effect of poverty and its effects on children.

9.8. School-Based Reforms

9.8.1. Intersectional choice plans include public and private schools.

9.8.2. Intrasectional school choice includes only public schools.

9.9. Charter schools

9.9.1. public schools that are free from many of the regulations applied to traditional public schools

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