My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Schools as Organizations

1.1. Alabama State Senators:

1.1.1. Paul Bussman- Republican

1.1.2. Bill Holtzclaw- Republican

1.1.3. Arthur Orr- Republican

1.2. Alabama House of Representatives

1.2.1. Terri Collins- Republican

1.2.2. Ed Henry- Republican

1.2.3. Mike Ball- Republican

1.3. Alabama State Superintendent - Dr.Tommy Bice

1.4. Alabama State School Board Members:

1.4.1. Governor Robert J. Bentley- President

1.4.2. Thomas R. Bice - Secretary and Executive Officer

1.4.3. Jeffery Newman -Vice President District 7

1.4.4. Yvette Richardson- Pro Tem District 4

1.4.5. Matthew S. Brown- District 1

1.4.6. Betty Peters- District 2

1.4.7. Stephanie Bell - District 3

1.4.8. Ella B. Bell - District 5

1.4.9. Cynthia Sanders McCarty- District 6

1.4.10. Mary Scott Hunter- District 8

1.5. Morgan County Superintendent- Bill Hopkins

1.6. Morgan County School Board Members: http://www.morgank12.org/?DivisionID=1440

1.6.1. Mr. Billy Rhodes District 1 (West Morgan)

1.6.2. Mr. Adam Glenn District 2 (Danville)

1.6.3. Mr. Mike Tarpley Vice Chairman District 3 (Falkville)

1.6.4. Mr. Paul Holmes Chairman District 4 (Eva)

1.6.5. Mr. Jimmy Dobbs District 5 (Priceville - Sparkman)

1.6.6. Mr. Tom Earwood District 6 (Brewer - Cotaco)

1.6.7. Mr. Jeff McLemore District 7 (Lacey's Spring and Union Hill)

1.7. 7 Habits: Leadership: Lighthouse Schools

1.7.1. 1. Be Proactive

1.7.2. 2. Begin With The End In Mind

1.7.3. 3. Put First Things First

1.7.4. 4. Think Win-Win

1.7.5. 5. Seek First to Understand, Then to Be Understood

1.7.6. 6. Synergize

1.7.7. 7. Sharpen the Saw

2. Sociological Perspectives

2.1. Theoretical perspectives about the relation of school and society

2.1.1. Functional theory- the view of functional sociologists that stresses interdependence.

2.1.1.1. Society is like a machine where all the different parts come together with another at some point in order to make the bigger idea (society) work as it should.

2.1.1.1.1. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) set the tone for how functionalists approach the study of education.

2.1.2. Conflict theory-the idea that economic, political, cultural, and military powers are what hold society together with an emphasis on the struggle

2.1.2.1. The sociologists having the conflict point of view believe that schools are similar to social battlefields. In the school, students struggle against teachers, teachers against administrators and so on.

2.1.2.2. Karl Marx (1818-1883) is the intellectual founder of the conflict school in the sociology of education.

2.1.2.3. Max Weber (1864-1920) agrees partially with Marx, but focuses more on status competition and organizational constraints.

2.1.2.4. Randall Collins (1971,1979) believes educational expansion thrives through status group struggle.

2.1.3. Interactional theory- branches off of or is some combination containing the functional and conflict theories.

2.1.3.1. Claims that functional and conflict perspectives only focus on the "big picture" of school instead of the everyday picture of what school is like.

2.1.3.2. The little behaviors and interactions are what should be focused on since they are what the "big picture" is really made of.

2.1.3.3. Basil Bernstein (1990) believes that structural aspects and interactional aspects, since they reflect each other, should be viewed wholistically.

2.2. Effectives of schooling on the individual

2.2.1. Employment- It is becoming common knowledge that greater education levels equal greater employment opportunities; however, that knowledge is weakly related to job performance.

2.2.2. Teacher behavior- Teachers are expected to play so many different roles: instructor, disciplinarian, bureaucrat, employer, friend, confidant, educator, and many more. Because teachers act in so many different roles in the presence of their students, their behaviors are going to be observed and absorbed by students. Teachers set the standards and must model those expected standards for their students.

3. Politics of Education

3.1. Education and Schooling- the general purposes of education and schooling are directed at conceptions of what is the "good life" and a "good person"

3.2. Political Perspectives of Education - A perspective is a general model for looking at something.

3.2.1. Conservative Perspective- originates from the 19th century evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin as applied to the analysis of societies.

3.2.1.1. Originally developed by sociologists William Graham Sumner.

3.2.1.2. Individuals and groups must compete in the social environment if they want to survive, and human progress is dependent on individual initiative and drive.

3.2.2. Liberal Perspective- originates from the 20th century in the works of philosopher John Dewey and became dominant during Franklin Delano Roosevelt's administration (New Deal Era).

3.2.2.1. Holds the belief that the free market left unregulated creates opportunity of significant abuse for economically and politically disadvantaged groups.

3.2.2.2. Government involvement is necessary in order to provide fair treatments for all citizens and to ensure a healthy economy.

3.2.2.3. Primarily concerned with balancing capitalism's economic productivity with the social and economic needs of the majority of people.

3.3. Radical Perspective- based on the 19th century economist and philosopher Karl Marx (1818-1883).

3.3.1. Believes democratic socialism is a fairer political-economic system.

3.3.2. Believes that social problems of the U.S. are caused by the structure of the society; therefore, they want to focus on structure rather than individuals.

3.3.3. The radical perspective is the negative outlook on U.S. society.

3.4. Neo-Liberal Perspective- This perspective is some combination of other perspectives.

3.4.1. Beliefs shared with conservatives: cutting public spending on education, free market solves social problems better than governmental policy, and educational success or failure is the result of individual effort rather than social and economic factors.

3.4.2. Beliefs shared with liberals are that state intervention in the educational system is at times necessary to ensure equality of opportunity and that race and social class are important factors in the achievement gap.

3.5. Visions of Education: traditional and progressive

3.5.1. Traditional - believes the school is necessary for instilling traditional U.S. values such as hard work, family, unity, individual initiative, and so on.

3.5.2. Progressive - believes that schools are crucial to solving social problems, a vehicle for upward mobility, as essential to the development of individual potential, and as an integral part of the democratic society.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Idealism

4.1.1. education is important as a means of moving individuals collectively toward achieving good

4.1.2. the state has an active role in education

4.1.3. curriculum is abstract and concerned with ideas rather than matter

4.1.4. Modern idealists include: St. Augustine, Rene Descartes, Immanuel Kant, and George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.

4.1.5. students search for the truth as individuals

4.1.6. The teacher's role is to analyze and discuss with students in order for them to move to new levels of awareness and ultimately be transformed.

4.1.7. Methods of instruction: lecturing, dialectic approach, and questioning.

4.1.8. curriculum focuses on the study of classics such as literature of past classics

4.2. Realism

4.2.1. Holds the belief that studying the material world is the only way to develop and/or clarify ideas.

4.2.2. Modern realists include: Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, Francis Bacon, John Locke, Alfred North Whitehead, and Bertrand Russell.

4.2.3. The goal of education: Realists believe that the only way to help solve problems in the modern world is to understand and then apply principles of science.

4.2.4. The role of teachers is to present their students with the knowledge necessary to continue the human race.

4.2.5. Lectures and questions-and-answer are the two most important methods of instruction.

4.2.6. Curriculum is believed to be based on science, mathematics, reading, writing, and humanities.

4.3. Pragmatism

4.3.1. Holds the belief that children are active, organic beings who are growing and changing which requires a course of study that would reflect their particular stage of development.

4.3.2. Researchers include: George Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey.

4.3.3. The role of education is to transform students into a democratic society- also known as progressive education.

4.3.4. The goal of education is rooted in social order; ideas were not seen as separate from social conditions.

4.3.5. The teacher is viewed as the facilitator of information- encouraging questions and helps plan and implement the course of study.

4.3.6. Methods of instruction include individual and group instruction- along with problem solving and inquiry methods.

4.3.7. Believes in an integrated curriculum of math, science, history, reading, writing, music, art, wood or metal working, cooking, and sewing.

4.4. Existentialism

4.4.1. Is considered an individualistic philosophy. Believed that individuals are placed on this earth alone and must make sense out of the chaos they encounter.

4.4.2. The goal of education is to focus on the needs of the individual and believe that education should stress individuality.

4.4.3. Education is thought to focus on possibility, since the individual changes in a constant state of becoming.

4.4.4. The teacher is thought to enable students to become in touch with their world and to empower students to make their own choices.

4.4.5. Instructional methods include personal learning and it is up to the teacher to discover what works for each child.

4.4.6. Curriculum is based on humanities such as art, drama, and music.

4.5. Neo-Marxism

4.5.1. Focuses on social order and change. They believe that individuals who conflict and struggle are the ones who make history.

4.5.2. Ideology is the idea or belief system of the ruling class.

4.5.3. The goal of education is to empower students to shape their own ideas of the world and make changes for the good.

4.5.4. Believes that curriculum reproduces economic, social, and political status quo.

4.5.5. The role of the teacher is to engage the students in examination of the world. Education should also result in the awareness of self and society.

4.5.6. Method on instruction is dialectical and seeks to reveal the underlying assumptions of society while helping students to see alternative possibilities.

4.5.7. A neo-Marxists curriculum is socially instructed and focuses on those that have power determine what students need to know. These individuals reshape the curriculum to show a fairer view on the world and the needs of society.

4.5.8. http://search.proquest.com.athens.iii.com/docview/196874881?accountid=8411

4.6. <iframe width="420" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/ziNyAHgfZyY" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>

5. History of U.S. Education

5.1. Reforms in public schooling

5.1.1. Common school (1820-1860)-Horace Mann of Massachusetts led the struggle for free public education.

5.1.1.1. Common school is freely publicly funded elementary schools.

5.1.1.2. Partly from the efforts of Horace Mann, the first teacher training school (normal school) was established in Lexington, Massachusetts.

5.1.2. Urbanization- the beginning of the 19th century was known as the First Industrial Revolution; large proportions of immigration and urbanization.

5.1.2.1. Immigration caused the greatest gap between rich and poor that our country has ever seen.

5.1.2.2. Schools during this time were undergoing transformations similar to what we see today- technology, immigration, and altered life styles.

5.1.3. Public high schools- major shift in the meaning and purpose of education

5.1.3.1. National Education Association had to clarify the purpose of high school education.

5.1.3.1.1. Argued the purpose of secondary education was to prepare one for the "duties of life"

5.1.3.1.2. Traditional and classic subjects be treated the same.

5.1.3.1.3. All students be taught in the same manner.

5.1.3.1.4. Backed by Cargegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching's adoption of the same core courses.

5.2. Historical Interpretations of Education

5.2.1. Radical-Revisionists School

5.2.1.1. consists of radical historians, sociologists, and political economists of education

5.2.1.2. had a more critical view of the history education

5.2.1.3. education was for economic efficiency and productivity

5.2.1.4. higher education was not for equality of opportunity

5.2.2. Democratic-Liberal School

5.2.2.1. believes that the history of U.S. education involves progressive evolution- providing equality of opportunity for all

5.2.2.2. Common School Era- they believe it was the first step in opening U.S. education to all

5.2.2.3. believe that expansion of opportunity and purpose

5.2.2.4. optimistic

5.2.3. Conservative Perspective

5.2.3.1. all students be given an opportunity to succeed

5.2.3.2. evolution of U.S. education has resulted in dilution of academic excellence

5.2.3.3. curriculum should be fair and nonracist

5.2.3.4. believe that charter schools, vouchers. privatization, and standardized testing has resulted in corporate takeover of public schoolin

5.2.3.5. schooling is to develop the powers of intelligence

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Curriculum Theories

6.1.1. Social efficiency curriculum- The idea that different students should receive different curricula. Instruction should be diverse, flexible and a division of labor.

6.1.2. Humanist curriculum- Western heritage and liberal arts as the focus. They argue that students do not know enough about their cultural heritage because the schools curriculum does not focus on it enough.

6.1.3. Developmentalist curriculum- Focuses on the needs and interests of the individual rather the needs of the society. Therefore curriculum is focused on flexibility in both what is taught and how it is taught along with an emphasis on each students individual capacities.

6.1.4. Social Meliorist curriculum- is concerned with the role of the school forming society along with response to the growing society. It has a strong classification between academic and vocational curriculum. It relates to philosophical, sociological, and political factors.

6.1.5. Personally, I like the idea of the social efficiency curriculum. Individuals are just that, individual! The curriculum should allow for the reflection of that individuality and should be flexible in order to provide what each student needs.

6.2. Hidden curriculum are lessons learned but are not necessarily the actual focus. These could be how to engage in appropriate conversation with adults, expected behaviors, or walking correctly in the hallway.

6.3. Null curriculum is what we do not teach and gives the idea that these elements are not essential for learning. These are the ideas that we are not allowed to teach in the school.

6.4. Mainstream curriculum is the basic knowledge that a student must know. The part of the curriculum that is stated and directly taught to the students. These are the objectives of lessons.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Caste Stratification – occurs in agrarian societies where social level is defined in terms of some strict criteria such as race or religion.

7.2. Estate Stratification – occurs agrarian in societies where social level is defined in terms of the hierarchy of family worth.

7.3. Class Stratification – occurs in industrial societies that define social level in terms of a hierarchy of differential achievement by individuals, especially in economic pursuits.

7.4. Social Stratification in the United States:

7.4.1. Upper Class: 1 – 3% of the population

7.4.2. Upper Middle Class: 15 % of the population

7.4.3. Lower Middle Class: 25% of the population

7.4.4. Working Class: 40% of the population

7.4.5. Underclass/Lower Class: 20% of the population

7.5. Achievement Gap refers to the observed, persistent disparity of educational measures between the performance of groups of students (especially groups defined by socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity or gender).

7.6. Females achieve at higher levels in reading at ages 9, 13 and 17 but achieve at lower levels in science at ages 9, 13 and 17. This is an example of sociological research that illustrates the impact of achievement gaps in schools on equal educational opportunities.

7.7. The Coleman Report

7.7.1. An influential and controversial study, the Coleman Report was based on an extensive survey of educational opportunity (the national sample included almost 650,000 students and teachers in more than 3,000 schools), was mandated in the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and directed by the sociologist James Coleman.

7.7.2. Coleman’s work was oft misinterpreted as an argument that ‘schools don't matter, only families matter’.

7.7.3. Coleman's subsequent work was designed to help identify the characteristics of schools which did matter, so that the impact of school relative to that of family could be increased.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. The Functionalist Vision of a “just society” is one where individual talent and hard work are based on universal principles of evaluation.

8.2. Functionalists expect that the process of schooling will produce unequal results, but that the results should be due to individual differences between students, not on group differences.

8.3. Conflict theorists believe that the role of schooling is to reproduce instead of eliminate inequality (this assertion is consistent with data that shows educational outcomes that are strongly linked to family background).

8.4. Interactionist theory suggests that we must understand how people within institutions such as families or schools interact on a daily basis in order to comprehend the factors explaining academic success or failure.

8.4.1. Student centered (extra school) explanations of inequalities focus on factors outside of school such as family, the community, culture, peer groups and the individual student.

8.4.1.1. Student Centered Explanations of Educational Inequality: 3 Controversial Perspectives

8.4.1.1.1. Genetic or Biological Differences Theory

8.4.1.1.2. Cultural Deprivation Theories - a sociological theory that claims that the working class cannot easily gain cultural capital, hindering their access to education and upward social mobility.

8.4.1.1.3. Cultural Difference Theories *First theory asserts that African American children do less well in school because they adapt to their oppressed position in the class structure. *Second theory views working class and non-white students as resisting the dominant culture of schools. *Third theory asserts that Asian Americans possess family values that place great emphasis on educational achievement along with high expectation for children.

8.4.2. School centered (within-school) explanations of inequalities focus on factors within the school such as the teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, abilitie grouping, school climate and teacher expectations.

8.4.2.1. School Centered Explanations of Educational Inequality

8.4.2.2. *School Financing *Effective versus Ineffective Schools *School Climate *Pedagogic Practices

8.4.2.2.1. Characteristics of Effective Schools

9. Educational Reform

9.1. A Nation at Risk: The First Wave of Education Reform

9.1.1. The first wave of education reform in the United States stressed the need for increased educational excellence through increased educational standards.

9.1.2. The reform focused on: the need for excellence and equity in schools, the need to clarify educational goals, the need to develop a common core curriculum, the need to eliminate tracking programs, the need for major changes in vocational education, the need for education to teach about technology, the need to increase duration and intensity of academic learning, the needs to recruit, train, and retain more academically able teachers.

9.2. The second wave of reform was based on the recommendations made at the State Governor's Conference. The reform focused on: l Teaching leadership and management, parental involvement and choice in schools, student readiness for school (for preschoolers), school facilities being fully utilized, quality colleges and accountability for learning.

9.3. The Carnegie report entitled A Nation Prepared : Teachers for a 21st Century focused on the educational quality of teacher education programs. It asserted: teacher education programs lacked rigor and intellectual demands which would negatively impact success and student achievement in schools, the necessity to reorganize the academic and professional components of teacher education programs, and the need to attract and retain competent teacher candidates.

9.3.1. The Six Core Principles of Improvement http://www.carnegiefoundation.org/our-ideas/six-core-principles-improvement/

9.4. Goals 2000:

9.4.1. Goal 1: All children will start school ready to learn.

9.4.2. Goal 2: High school graduation rates will increase to at least 90%.

9.4.3. Goal 3: American students will leave grades 4, 8, and 12, having demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter so that they would be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our modern economy.

9.4.4. Goal 4: U.S. students will be first in the world in math and science achievement.

9.4.5. Goal 5: Every adult American will be literate and will possess the skills necessary to compete in a global economy.

9.4.6. Goal 6: Every school in America will be free of drugs and violence and will offer a disciplined environment conducive to learning.

9.5. No Child Left Behind:

9.5.1. Annual testing required of students in grades 3 through 8 in reading and math, plus at least one test in grades 10 through 12 with science testing. Graduation rates are used as a secondary indicator for high schools.

9.5.2. States and districts are required to report school by school data on student test scores, broken out by whether the student is African American, Hispanic American, Native American, Asian American, white non-Hispanic, special education, limited English proficiency, and/or low income.

9.5.3. States must set Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) goals for each school.

9.5.4. Schools that don’t meet AYP for two years are labeled “In Need of Improvement”. This means that schools must offer the students the option to go to another public school and/or receive federally funded tutoring. Funds would also be made available for teacher professional development. If the school does not meet subsequent year’s AYP, it would be subject to restructuring.

9.5.5. Schools must have “highly qualified teachers” for teachers in the core academic subjects.

9.5.5.1. http://www2.ed.gov/nclb/methods/teachers/hqtflexibility.html

9.6. Race to the Top:

9.7. Suggestions for educational reform:

9.7.1. Recruiting, developing, rewarding and retaining effective teachers and principals.

9.7.2. Building data systems that measure student growth and success and inform teachers and principals about how they can improve instruction.

9.7.3. Adopting standards and assessments that prepare students to succeed in college and the workplace and to compete in the global economy.

9.7.4. Turning around the lowest-achieving schools.