Chapters 8-9

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Chapters 8-9 by Mind Map: Chapters 8-9

1. The man who replaced his wife

1.1. Moustafa is the husband of the story of Shahira whom is his second wife willing to try IVF for him

1.1.1. This story is an example of how husbands like Moustafa blame his (first) wife for his infertility & how woman usually take the blame or protect their husbands from embarrassment of being infertile

2. Conjugal Connectivity

2.1. Marriage has very high culturally sacred meanings for both men and woman

2.1.1. Civil contract

2.1.2. Children are an important factor in marriage and love isn't built until children are in picture " "Particularly problematic in infertile marriages, because social structural terms, a husband and wife without children do not constitude a socially recognized definable unit within Egyptian socitities." P. 227

2.1.3. Wifes willingness to accept social blame, although some husbands find replacement wives "Male infertility is considered a significant ground for female-initiated divorce remains highly stigmatized." P. 231

3. Marriage & Divorce in the Age of ICSI

3.1. Blame game/gender politics

3.1.1. More highly educated upper-class men choose to replace their wives- this is allowed under Islam personal status law

3.1.2. Doctors have different approaches towards patients when explaining infertility

3.1.3. Women age vs men sperm count Salvation of masculinity vs destruction of femininity

3.1.4. Most woman rather have an infertile husband than to go through a stigmatized divorce Very costly to marry, and difficult to divorce

3.2. Age-anomaly connection, if made, will never decrease the desire of older Egyptian women to conceive a child through IVF or ICIS P. 236

3.2.1. Screening for abnormalities' is routine in US but not part of obstetric landscape in Egypt

3.2.2. More wiling to conceive a child with abnormalities than to not having a child at all

4. The "Top Secret" Stigma

4.1. Social discrimination against infertile women- Childless woman reminded by others

4.1.1. Avoid, haram, kalam & miskina by other women Do not announce pregnancies early or IVF treatments because of fear of attracting envy

4.1.2. Shield themselves from negative actions, thoughts, feeling of shame by keeping infertility a secret Reason why desire privacy

4.1.3. Destigmatize themselves by surrounding infertility in mystery Hiding treatments from public-secret siigma

5. Dilemmas of Disclosure

5.1. Social and moral implications

5.1.1. Nondisclosure/limited disclosure for treatment

5.1.2. Usually wait till after birth to reveal secrets

5.1.3. Fear social stigma for children Woman view differently how they will present their birth to the child later in the years, some fear consequences some see it as a reason to value their lives Hopes of grateful for sacrifices and to feel precious "Optimistic that the next generation of Egyptians might view test-tube baby making as something "normal" and "natural". P. 257 "If so, disclosure of IVF or ICIS would no longer have potentially devastating effects on IVF children including untoward effects on their future marriageability.. might mean future Egyptian mothers of test-tube babies would no longer have to suffer in silence." P. 257

6. The stigma of support

6.1. Emotional isolation due to the issue of profession and patient led support (cultural prohibitions)

6.1.1. Many patients can only turn to their doctors whom cannot meet all of their patients emotional needs

6.1.2. Even if they seek psychiatrist them labeled as crazy and if so must also do this in silence

6.2. Many couples rejection of support groups

6.2.1. Embarrassment over sensitive matter with strangers-humiliating

6.2.2. Viewed as going public

6.2.3. Women believe will cause depression and anxieties from hearing stories of other woman and may hurt others who haven't concieved