Eukaryotic Gene Expression

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Eukaryotic Gene Expression by Mind Map: Eukaryotic Gene Expression

1. Transcriptional (act on DNA)

1.1. NOTES

1.1.1. NOTE: Control elements (noncoding segments) regulate transcription by binding proteins - regulate gene expression in different cell types.

1.1.2. NOTE: Activator must bind to an enhancer to stimulate the transcription of a gene.

1.1.3. NOTE: Repressors may block binding of activators or affect chromatin structure.

1.2. Preventing

1.2.1. Methylation

1.2.1.1. condenses chromatin, restricting transcription (Ex: genomic imprinting - involved in epigenetic inheritance).

1.3. Promoting

1.3.1. Acetylation

1.3.1.1. acetylation of histone tails -> loose chromatin -> promotes transcription.

1.3.2. Phosphorylation

1.3.2.1. phosphate next to methyl-> promotes transcription.

2. Post-Transcriptional (act on mRNA)

2.1. Alternative RNA Processing

2.1.1. regulatory proteins specific to cell type control which genes are exons/introns->different amino acids ultimately produced.

2.2. mRNA Degredation

2.2.1. shortening of poly-A tail etc. - controlled by nucleotide sequences in the UTR

2.3. siRNA and miRNA bind to existing RNA and shut them off to prevent translation (RNAi: RNA interference)

2.4. Initiation of Translation

2.4.1. attachment of regulatory proteins

3. Post- Translational (act on finished protein)

3.1. Protein Degradation

3.1.1. Ubiquitin attaches-> proteasomes attach and degrade the protein.

4. Translational (act on mRNA)

4.1. Prevents

4.1.1. Regulatory proteins attach to UTR so ribosomes don't attach.

4.1.2. mRNA w/o Poly-A tail

4.1.3. Global control - all mRNA are activated by some factors at once -> so before the factors appear, they are turned off.