Eukaryotic Gene Expression

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Eukaryotic Gene Expression by Mind Map: Eukaryotic Gene Expression

1. 1) Transcriptional --> transcription

1.1. Control Elements --> promote/prevent transcription

1.1.1. Histone Acetylation --> add acetyl, loosens chromatin structure, promotes trans

1.1.2. DNA Methylation --> methyl condenses chromatin, restricts trans

1.1.2.1. X inactivation - Embryonic cell differentiation - Genomic imprinting

1.1.3. Phosphorylation --> phosphate + methyl = promotes trans

2. 2) Post-Transcriptional --> mRNA

2.1. Alternative RNA Processing

2.1.1. Regulatory proteins control combination of eons and introns

2.2. mRNA Degradation

2.2.1. poly a tail shortening

2.3. Initiation of Translation

2.3.1. regulatory proteins bind to UTR5' to block translation from happening

2.4. Protein Processing and Degradation

3. 3) Translational --> translation

3.1. miRNA dna siRNA

3.1.1. miRNA - bind to complementary sequences to degrade target mRNA / prevent translation - formed from hairpin precursor molecule

3.1.2. siRNA - formed from longer double-stranded RNA - heterochromatin formation and can block large regions of chromosomes

4. 4) Post-Translational --> protein

4.1. Protein Degradation - ubquitin is added to protein to be degraded, this signals a proteasome to come, protein is degraded and fragments are left behind and the proteasome and ubiquitin are recycled