Eukaryotic Differential Gene Expression

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Eukaryotic Differential Gene Expression by Mind Map: Eukaryotic Differential Gene Expression

1. Post-translational- act after the protein has been produced

1.1. Proteasome-protein degradation

1.1.1. http://bio1151b.nicerweb.com/Locked/media/ch19/proteasome.html

2. Post-transcriptional- control of gene expression at the RNA level. Allows RNA splicing to happen and ends up in changed proteins and polypeptides. Control or regulate mRNA after it has been produced.

2.1. This causes mRNA degradation when the mRNA is broken down. Occurs when the product isn't needed.

2.1.1. Now the same happens to the proteins when they travel to the proteasome and they have to change so that can be peptides

2.2. The beginning of translating is where the regulatory proteins attach to the UTR.

2.3. The ubitiquin is found in the proteasome.

2.4. Alternative RNA processing- (Splicing)

3. Transcriptional- Accomplished mainly by the combined actions of multiple regulatory proteins.

3.1. There are three actions which have the ability to promote/inhibit transcription

3.1.1. Phosphorylation

3.1.1.1. Makes genes, which were methylated, read. It is promoting transcription.

3.1.2. Methylation

3.1.2.1. Makes the chromatin condense. This causes the chromatin not the be read. It is preventing transcription.

3.1.3. Acetylation

3.1.3.1. Happens when the acetyl group binds to histones. It is promoting transcription.

4. Translational-prevent translation by manipulating protein factors needed for translation

4.1. Initiation of Translation

4.1.1. Regulatory proteins can attach so that ribsomes cant attach

4.1.2. some organisms store mRNAs in egg cells that don't have poly-A tails

4.1.3. translation is under "global control" when stored mRNAs are all activated by one or more translation factors

4.2. miRNA

4.2.1. is a double-stranded hairpin structure produced by trimming a large precursor molecule (the enzyme that does the trimming is called Dicer)

4.2.2. miRNA forms a complex with proteins and can bind to a complementary sequences to degrade the target mRNA or prevent translation

4.2.3. 1/3 of human genes are regulated like this

4.2.4. miRNA is formed from a hairpin precursor molecule

4.2.5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MicroRNA#/media/File:MiRNA.svg

4.3. siRNA

4.3.1. siRNA is formed from longer double-stranded RNA that produces many siRNA’s

4.4. RNA interference

4.4.1. caused by siRNAs

4.4.2. involved with heterochromatin formation and blacks large sections of chromosomes