Mark 12:13-17 "Render To God The Things That Are God's"

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Mark 12:13-17 "Render To God The Things That Are God's" by Mind Map: Mark 12:13-17 "Render To God The Things That Are God's"

1. Jesus escape (v 15-17a)

1.1. Mark 12:15–17 (ESV) — 15 But, knowing their hypocrisy, he said to them, “Why put me to the test? Bring me a denarius and let me look at it.” 16 And they brought one. And he said to them, “Whose likeness and inscription is this?” They said to him, “Caesar’s.” 17 Jesus said to them, “Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s.” And they marveled at him.

1.2. knowing their hypocrisy

1.2.1. Important that Jesus is wanting to deal with the heart, not just the question

1.2.2. why put me to the test?

1.3. Bring me a denarius

1.3.1. the coin The coin’s obverse had the effigy of the emperor and the superscription read: “TI[ berius] CAESAR DIV[ i] AUG[ usti] F[ ilius] AUGUSTUS” (“ Tiberius Caesar, August Son of the Divine Augustus”). The reverse had a female figure seated on a throne, wearing a crown and holding an inverted spear in her right hand and a palm or olive branch in her left. The superscription read: “Pontif[ ex] Maxim[ us]” (“ High Priest”). The woman was either a priestess or Livia, the wife of Augustus and mother of Tiberias, and the coin proclaimed the pax Romana that had put all the world in subjection. It was, in effect, a portable idol promulgating pagan ideology. Garland, David E. (2011-03-01). Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 462). Zondervan. Kindle Edition. nothign would have offended a jew more some jews avoided this coin temple tax, herod tax, local tax - and this tax like losing on your own home court

1.3.2. See the irony o Jews, that image of Caesar was idolatrous. More specifically, this story seems to happen in the Temple (21:23). What a place to bring the image of an idol! These were the same people who had protested to Rome about Pontius Pilate setting up idolatrous images in the Temple – and which made Pilate so politically weak a few days later when they demanded Jesus’ execution!

1.3.3. they brought one Note: they had one. They did buisness in one. Trade roman coins for temple coins but they kept the temple coins There is some irony in the fact that the inquirers possess the requisite coin for the tax, whereas Jesus does not. They apparently share more complicity in the tax system than their question suggests. Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Locations 6565-6567). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

1.4. Render to caesar the thigns that are caesars

1.4.1. Background The coins were literal from him - irst of all, by using the word image, he is implying, “Give to Caesar only that has his image on it. Anything with his image on it, give to him. It’s his. They’re his coins. It’s his coinage.” Literally, by the way, it was his money. It literally was minted out of his wealth. “It’s his money. Give it to him because his image is on it, but give to God what has his image on it. That’s you.” Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church. KJV - "render" - Pay back what he deserves what does a tyrant deserve? Money? maybe somewhat says how much he cares about that.

1.4.2. Maccabean saying "pay back the gentiles what htey deserve .. and obeyt he commandments of God" (1 mac 2:68)

1.4.3. By asking His critics to produce the Roman coin, Jesus underscored the fact that they were enjoying the benefits of Caesar’s government. They used 2 his coinage; they enjoyed many civil improvements and benefits that he provided. Thus they were obligated to give him his due

1.4.4. It distances Jesus from all forms of political anarchy, best exemplified in his day by the Zealots, who believed that the overthrow of the Roman Imperium was the will of God. Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Locations 6568-6569). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

1.4.5. The portrait and legend demonstrated the right of the sovereign who coined the money to demand tribute from the provincials, in keeping ing with the common understanding that the emperor owned the coins which bore his image. William L. Lane. The Gospel of Mark (Kindle Locations 4435-4436). Kindle Edition.

1.4.6. There are obligations to the state which do not infringe the rights of God but are grounded in his appointment (cf. Rom. 13:1-7; I Tim. 2:1-6; Tit. 3:1 f.; I Peter 2:13-17). William L. Lane. The Gospel of Mark (Kindle Locations 4436-4437). Kindle Edition.

1.4.7. *** By recognizing the relative autonomy of the civil authority in the first part of his response, Jesus showed himself opposed to any belief in an essentially theocratic state and to any expectation of an imminent eschatological consummation tion of his own mission. William L. Lane. The Gospel of Mark (Kindle Locations 4437-4439). Kindle Edition. ** Hence teh blow to the expected tyep of kingdom

1.4.8. App = pay taxes

1.4.9. Romans 13 is important her e- give what is due

1.4.10. kind of the spirit of snd this filthy stuff back from wehre ti came from - Wright

1.4.11. But He doesn't stop there. He goes on to give a fuller response to their question. In verse 21, He says this, "Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and render to God the things that are God's." Jesus uses a different verb in His response than they had used in their question. They put the question this way: is it lawful for us to give the poll tax to Caesar? And Jesus says, give back to Caesar what belongs to Caesar. He uses a different verb. Why does He do this? Because He is saying, when you pay that poll tax, you aren't ‘giving a gift to Caesar.’ Caesar has already built you roads, Caesar has already given you justice courts, he has set up military protection for you, police and various other civil benefits. Therefore, if you have a problem with Caesar's provisions, you shouldn't be protesting the poll tax, you should have protested in the first place when he did the other things! You accept the roads, you accept the protection, and then you pretend to have religious scruples over paying him for it! So you give back to Caesar what already belongs to him! But you give to God what belongs to Him. And Jesus is saying, you know that only God is to be worshipped, only God is God, only God provides the high priest. So you don't worship Caesar as a high priest, you don't acknowledge him as a high priest, you pay him his money for his roads and for his protection, but you don't worship him as high priest. That belongs to God. - Ligon Duncan

1.5. Implications

1.5.1. Participating in the communities we are in is right before God Keller - removing political complacency Should we pay tax? Yes But it's bad - no In saying this, Jesus is making an implciation - if following God means ok to participate in gov't, then it says something about God and that gov't Now not explicit here but it is flushed out in NT But what if htey do bad things/ Jeremiah 27:5–8 (ESV) — 5 “It is I who by my great power and my outstretched arm have made the earth, with the men and animals that are on the earth, and I give it to whomever it seems right to me. 6 Now I have given all these lands into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon, my servant, and I have given him also the beasts of the field to serve him. 7 All the nations shall serve him and his son and his grandson, until the time of his own land comes. Then many nations and great kings shall make him their slave. 8 “ ‘ “But if any nation or kingdom will not serve this Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, and put its neck under the yoke of the king of Babylon, I will punish that nation with the sword, with famine, and with pestilence, declares the LORD, until I have consumed it by his hand. God establishes govt Daniel 2:21 (ESV) — 21 He changes times and seasons; he removes kings and sets up kings; he gives wisdom to the wise and knowledge to those who have understanding; Daniel 2:37–38 (ESV) — 37 You, O king, the king of kings, to whom the God of heaven has given the kingdom, the power, and the might, and the glory, 38 and into whose hand he has given, wherever they dwell, the children of man, the beasts of the field, and the birds of the heavens, making you rule over them all—you are the head of gold. So important we understand this in or times ISOLATIONISM WILL NOT DO. it shows you don't beleive God is sovereign over life. How much? Christians should generally obey civil auhtorities

1.5.2. Jesus is calling his followers to be dual citizens Augustin - city of God Pilgrims in ths world

1.5.3. Jesus is tipping his hand on waht the kingdom of God at that time was not going to He was not removing Caesar - give him his tax He was not setting up a theocrasy Ending the temp pay tax to caesar A huge blow to kingdom expectations all the oppression, all the zapping of their nation would still be present

1.5.4. God cares more about you than he does about your money Money is not what Jesus is pining for in establishing His kingdom ILL: In all the political race, money is a big issue. It is how you establish yourself, get yourself going. Jeb Bush dropped out. $1mill last month, $300K this month. Bernie - small amounts, Clinton big speeches, Trump - own money But God is not so concerned with money as he is about you, about your life,a bout yoru trust, about your heart Christianity is not a rich man's relgion, but neither is it a poor mans religion. REF: widows mite later in the story

1.5.5. God cares about devotion, giving, not just admiration

1.6. and to God the thing that are God's

1.6.1. ** What belonged to Caesar was these coins, it bore his name but what belongs to God is lives - we bear his image We bear his image of personhood We bear his image of understandign justice - right and wrong Knowing the common understanding that “he is king of the country whose coin is current in the country,”

1.6.2. In the same way - you enjoy the benefits from God, all the things tha tbear his image LIFE Creation YOu are his poeple Covenant YOu see - our obedience is a response. Always a response. A repsonse to Goodness. That is why the more we understand the goodness of God the more we obey

1.6.3. NOTE - thsi si tied to parable - tennants give what is due God!

1.6.4. Don't give Caesar ultimate allegiance

1.6.5. Jesus emphatically rejected this insolent confusion between man and God; divine honors belong to God alone. William L. Lane. The Gospel of Mark (Kindle Locations 4441-4442). Kindle Edition.

1.6.6. Duty to Caesar is surpassed by duty to God. "' Give to Caesar what is Caesar's and to God what is God's'" Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Locations 6575-6576). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

1.6.7. As the coin bears his image, give to caesar that. But whatever bears God's image, give that to him --- which is hwat? Ourselves

1.6.8. The New Testament proclaims that Jesus is king, which means that Caesar is not (see 1 Tim. 6: 14– 16). Peter applies Jesus’ words in Acts 5: 29 when he says, “We must obey God rather than men!” (cf. 4: 19– 20). Garland, David E. (2011-03-01). Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 466). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

1.6.9. Jesus limits what one owes to govt

1.6.10. declares that ultimate authority in life belongs to God. 33 One cannot consider political and civil duties apart from faith, but only as expressions of the prior and ultimate claims of God. Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Locations 6577-6578). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.


1.7.1. Wright's take N.T. Wright, who is a very prominent New Testament scholar, says what Jesus is doing is a masterful example of refusing to say, “Don’t pay the taxes,” which would mean revolt. He doesn’t do that. He doesn’t say, “Revolt!” On the other hand, he does not say, “Just acquiesce to the system. Be nice tax-paying people.” He doesn’t just do yes or no. “No, don’t pay the taxes.” That’s revolt. “Yes, pay the taxes. Be nice patriotic citizens. Don’t rock the boat.” He doesn’t do either. This is what N.T. Wright says is happening. Jesus Christ, had he told them to revolt or had he told them to pay their taxes, had actually done neither in one sense, but in another sense, he had done both. Nobody could deny that the saying of Jesus Christ that you could not give Caesar ultimate allegiance was revolutionary. On the other hand, nobody could say Jesus had forbidden the payment of taxes either. The point of Jesus was this: Jesus the Galilean is envisioning a revolution. He is, but a different sort of revolution than Judas the Galilean. Jesus Christ was advocating neither acceptance of the system nor straightforward political revolt. Yes, Jesus is saying, “There will be a revolution happening; the temple will be cleansed, but not in the way you envision.” That’s the reason why they’re amazed, because Jesus is not saying, “Acquiesce. Be a good citizen,” but he is also not saying, “Revolt. Don’t pay the taxes.” He is saying something really different. He says, “I am a revolutionary, but not the kind of revolutionary you’ve ever seen before.” This goes against complacency and primacy. Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

1.7.2. Be in this world but not of it Christians have always been prilgrims And not good situations have been floruising piotns for Jesus disciples Augustine city of God

1.7.3. Keller Refuses political simplicity they want a yes no to trap him but he gives tehm a both / and. Not simple yes no refuces political complacency refuses politcal primacy

1.7.4. On this reading Jesus' sus' response could be seen as ironic, suggesting in effect: "o.k. give back these worthless pieces of metal he claims,104 but know that we are to render to God all things since God alone is divine and to God belong all things. "105 "Rather than being a counsel of submission to earthly rulers, it is more likely to be a comment on the relative insignificance of the issue in light of the inbreaking dominion of God."106 Whether or not one paid the tribute neither hindered nor helped the coming of God and the divine eschatological reign. Ben Witherington III. The Gospel of Mark: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary (Kindle Locations 4912-4915). Kindle Edition.

1.7.5. Jesus point Rulership point Supports rulers and subverts them. Authoirty issue = who gave you the authority? And now is it more than Caesar? Kingdom point The kingdom is not nationalistic centered Discipleship point Give what bears God's image. It belongs to God. What is that? YOU. YOU!

1.7.6. God and the state mark dever has great thoughts Church and the sword Church over state State over church Augustine - City of God - two cities implciations Jesus rejects militant nationalism but does not propose that his followers drop out completely form society Jesus limits what one owes to govt Jesus does not make gov't the ultimate (per denarii inscriptuion) but god Jesus make sclear gov't and God is not the same The state is answerable to God Each Christian must know where to draw the line between the things that are Caesar’s and those that are God’s and to act responsibly and vigilantly to see that it is not crossed. Garland, David E. (2011-03-01). Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 467). Zondervan. Kindle Edition. The early Christians adopted a positive view of government’s role but argued that it derived its authority from God. 11 They Garland, David E. (2011-03-01). Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 466). Zondervan. Kindle Edition. This passage affirms that there are duties to governments that do not infringe on ultimate duties to God (Rom 13: 1-7; 1 Tim 2: 1-6; 1 Pet 2: 13-17), while vigorously rejecting that governments may assume total claim over their citizens, "as though the State, over and beyond its special commission, should and could become the single and totalitarian order of human Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Locations 6571-6573). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition. 3 ways to respond Anarchist - never obey / always disobey teh statist - always obey, never disobey the bible - generally obey, except disobey when statify Bibilcal criteteria Pinciples All authority belongs to God God has establised civl authorities Obey gov't even if they are bad Christians Are Required to Disobey Man Only When They Are Commanded to Sin and Have No Legal Means to Obey God

1.7.7. Jesus was killed by king and priest, govt and releigion

2. Jesus gives here a limited view of gvt and up till then, everything was a gvt is god view

2.1. Romans

2.2. Babylonains

2.3. Egyptians

2.4. Greece

2.5. Jews

2.6. Every single government always said, “The gods have chosen us. We are the choice of the gods.” Every single king had said, “I’m a god.” Every government had always said, “We’re the choice of the gods. Therefore, we have absolute authority. You cannot question us.” Jesus says, “Don’t you dare give any government that. Give Caesar the money, because it’s his money, he printed it, but don’t give him the allegiance.” Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

3. The trap (v 13-14)

3.1. Mark 12:13–14 (ESV) — 13 And they sent to him some of the Pharisees and some of the Herodians, to trap him in his talk. 14 And they came and said to him, “Teacher, we know that you are true and do not care about anyone’s opinion. For you are not swayed by appearances, but truly teach the way of God. Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? Should we pay them, or should we not?”

3.2. The true agenda

3.2.1. Mark 12:13 (ESV) — 13 And they sent to him some of the Pharisees and some of the Herodians, to trap him in his talk.

3.2.2. Interesting word - conveys the idea of a hunt Only placed used in the new testament is ehre Septuignt - (of a prostitute) Proverbs 6:25–26 (ESV) — 25 Do not desire her beauty in your heart, and do not let her capture you with her eyelashes; 26 for the price of a prostitute is only a loaf of bread, but a married woman hunts down a precious life. So funny - eyelashes Septuignt - (job to God) Job 10:16 (ESV) — 16 And were my head lifted up, you would hunt me like a lion and again work wonders against me.

3.2.3. The are hunting Jesus .... but jesus is already laying down his life

3.3. The hunters

3.3.1. Enemies, opposites - Phariees and Herodians

3.3.2. Pharisees - religious conservatives. In our culture - the fundamentalist perhaps (a little harsh). But they held to Jewish identity. They wanted nothing to do with hellenizing Jews. Detested the romans

3.3.3. Herodians The Herodians were the followers of Herod the great. He was a ruler who was under the supervision and control of the Roman rulers in Palestine. He was part of a line of kings who stretched back to the Maccabean period in Israel’s history, at least they had a claim to that, and he hoped one day to be the ruler of Judea. And this group of Herodians, this was apparently a nickname of the people who supported Herod and his particular court and claim. Josephus notes that Herod (the Great) "showed special favor to those of the city's populace who had been on his side while he was still a commoner" (Ant. 15.2).

3.3.4. Not first time mentioned Showed up here - Mark 3:6 (ESV) — 6 The Pharisees went out and immediately held counsel with the Herodians against him, how to destroy him.

3.3.5. Jesus brings people together - good and bad Herod and Pilate

3.4. The approach - insincere falttery

3.4.1. Mark 12:14 (ESV) — 14 And they came and said to him, “Teacher, we know that you are true and do not care about anyone’s opinion. For you are not swayed by appearances, but truly teach the way of God. ...

3.4.2. PT: It's good to develope a habit of getting pass the first flattery because often times the real issue will come forth

3.4.3. Their flattery (20:21) is ironic, because even though they did not believe what they were saying, it was totally true: Jesus did “speak and teach correctly.” He was not “partial to any.”

3.5. The question

3.5.1. Mark 12:14 (ESV) — ... Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? Should we pay them, or should we not?”

3.5.2. A hot political topic What was this tax? Tribute tax 1 denarius, a days wage Jews - local tax, temple tax, Herod's tax, poll , tribut tax Based on consesnsus A tax for the privliege to be goverened by Caesar Recent Background the tribute money ever since it had first been imposed on the Roman province of Judea in A.D. 6.24 At that time Judas the Galilean had seen in the census which was the prelude to the taxation an introduction to slavery and an affront to the sovereignty of God (cf. Josephus, Antiquities XVIII. i. 1; Acts 5:37). The Zealots resolutely refused to pay the tax because it acknowledged edged Caesar's domination over them. 25 The Pharisees resented the humiliation implied in the tax but justified its payment, while the Herodians dians supported it on principle. In asking if it was allowed by the Law of God to pay the tribute money it could be assumed that the Pharisees were concerned chiefly in the moral and religious implications of the question, and the Herodians with its political or nationalistic ramifications. William L. Lane. The Gospel of Mark (Kindle Locations 4419-4424). Kindle Edition. When Jesus would have been just a tyke, a guy known as Judas the Galilean started an anti-tax campaign in the Roman province of Judea. Most people have never heard of him, but he made quite a splash back in the day. The Romans had instituted a new tax policy in 6 CE, which required a census to implement (the author of Luke uses the memory of this census as the pretext for getting Joseph and Mary down to Bethlehem in Lk. 2). This policy was something new, since taxes were previously paid to whatever ethnarch or king, such as Herod and his sons, that the Romans lifted into leadership over the Jews. But in 6 CE the Augustus determined to switch to direct rule by a Roman prefect, who organized the census to prepare for the new direct taxation process. The tax was, as are taxes anywhere, widely unpopular, and taxation would be a constant point of contention between Rome and the Jews. But Judas the Galilean took his protest to a whole new level. Proclaiming himself as Messiah, he turned the question of paying taxes to a pagan emperor into a theological issue. Basically telling the Romans to “Read my lips,” Judas further tried to leverage his call for “no new taxes” into a political and military coup to unseat the Romans as the Maccabees had done a century and a half earlier to the Seleucid Greeks. But as Josephus tells us, this effort was swiftly and brutally suppressed by the Romans. Yet, in what may be the first recorded example of “zombie economics,” Judas’ idea came back to life and would remain in circulation in the province for roughly the next sixty years until the fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE.

3.5.3. The trap The question asked of Jesus is loaded because it raises the issue of fidelity to the God of Israel. Can one pay taxes to Caesar and still give allegiance to the God of Israel? Are people traitors to God for supporting Caesar’s hegemony over the land? Garland, David E. (2011-03-01). Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 462). Zondervan. Kindle Edition. These opponents probably peg Jesus as an extremist who will flash the same militant zeal as Judas the Galilean. If he openly rejects the head tax, he will be like those diehard rebels who incited revolt and will be subject to arrest for treason. But if he endorses the tax, he will undermine his support among the zealous, who chafe under Roman rule. Garland, David E. (2011-03-01). Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 462). Zondervan. Kindle Edition. compromise: support for taxation will discredit him in the eyes of the people, whereas his refusal to pay the tax will bring the Roman Imperium down on him. Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Locations 6562-6563). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

4. Conclusion

4.1. Contrast - two kings

4.1.1. One has all the coins, the other is poor Does he reach in and say look at this denarius? No , he doesn't have one. he has to ask Foxes have holes and birds of the air have nests, but the Son of Man has no place to lay his head.” Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

4.1.2. ** DO you see what Mark is doing? Remeember jesus has come and he has come in unexpecgd authority to end the tmeple But was he a king? Was he the king? The messiah? The kingdom? Of course! But it's so different guys. So different because I'm so differeint He says, “Let me give you a real revolution: the kingdom of God. The kingdom of God has a completely opposite, upside-down view of those values. Look at me. I’m a king unlike any other king you’ve ever seen. I’m a king without a quarter because I’ve given my money away. I’m a king without power, and I keep giving it away till the very end. I’m a king without recognition. I’m not recognized as a king. I’m not seen as a king. I’m rejected. I’m rejected till the very end. Even my Father turns his face from me.” Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church. Do yo usee the beauty of Chistianity? In our world we can't figure this out Michael Foucault - socialist, france But Jesus sets up a court, a kingdom where the king comes first as empty. Why?

4.2. Universal king

4.2.1. All the questions directed at Jesus concern jewish issues and Jesus makes all them global Temple authority pay taxes to Caesar Resurrection hope from Moses book First commandment Son of David

4.3. martyn Lloyd-jones

4.3.1. he image that is in you is God's image, not the state's image. You owe God your fundamental allegiance. You must give yourself to the Lord — “In full and glad surrender I give myself to Thee, Thine totally and only, and evermore to be”, to quote Francis Riddley Havergal in that marvelous hymn. The image that is in you is God's image.

4.3.2. The second conclusion that he drew was this: What is the worst thing that Caesar can do? He can take away your life, but God is almighty, and He can cast your soul into hell, where the worm does not die and the fire is not quenched. And dear friends, do you and I as Christians, do we contemplate as we ought the power of the everlasting and eternal God? “Render unto Caesar what is Caesar's, but render unto God what is God's.”

4.3.3. third conclusion he drew was this: That paying taxes will bring you good things. It will bring you good roads (though perhaps not in Mississippi!); it will bring you a fire service; it will bring you a police force...but God can give you eternal life. God can give you eternal life. “Render unto Caesar what is Caesar's, and unto God what is God's.”

5. The marvel (v17 b)

5.1. Mark 12:17 (ESV) — 17 ... And they marveled at him.

5.1.1. Jesus is saying, “In the narrow sense, I’m not political. In the broad sense, I’m incredibly political. In the specific sense of a political program, I don’t have one, at least not a detailed one. In the broader sense of bringing the kingdom of God to deal with real poverty, real suffering, real injustice, real hunger, real brokenness, I will. I’m not bringing a spiritual inner peace thing.” Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

6. Summary

6.1. Each of the stories in 11: 27– 12: 44 is set against the backdrop of the opposition of the Sanhedrin. The Sanhedrin consisted of three major groups, Pharisees, Sadducees, and scribes. Beginning with this story, each of these groups puts Jesus to the test — the Pharisees on the question of taxation (12: 13-17), the Sadducees on the question of the resurrection (12: 1827), and the scribes on the question of scriptural interpretation (12: 28-44). In each story Jesus is addressed as "Teacher" (12: 14, 19, 32), and in each Jesus demonstrates his authority, his exousia, which derived from his baptism by John (11: 29-30) and which has characterized his ministry from its inception (1: 22, 27). Edwards Jr., James R. (2009-10-05). The Gospel according to Mark (Pillar New Testament Commentary) (Kindle Locations 6532-6537). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

7. Illustration

7.1. Not long ago, one passionate Christian implored his fellow believers to join him by resisting the authority of the government with these stirring words: “We ask our fellow Christians to consider in their heart a question which has tormented us, night and day.... How many must die before our voices are heard? How many must be tormented, dislocated...or murdered? How long must the world’s resources be raped in the service of legalized murder?” With equal passion, still another advocate of disobedience to governing authorities defended his conduct on the well-known news program Nightline by taking the following tack: Interviewer: Did you break a law? [Advocate]: Yes.... Interviewer: How in the world do you expect a jury to find you innocent? [Advocate]: Well, we hope to show in this trial that the reason I broke the law was more important than the reason the law was made. Interviewer: And the reason you broke the law? [Advocate]: The reason I broke the law was to save lives. It is not surprising that those who uttered these stirring words of resistance appealed to the cause of saving life, since there really is no higher moral road anyone can trod to justify such resistance. What is surprising about these words, however, is who uttered them: not a Christian pro-life advocate, as you might very well imagine. Rather, these stirring words were uttered, respectively, by Father Berrigan of the Catonsville Nine as he protested the Vietnam War and James Walker, who was arrested a few years ago for illegally distributing sterilized needles to drug addicts, ostensibly to prevent the spread of AIDS.

7.2. Ravi Zach - Our greatest hunger, as Jesus described it, is for a consummate relationship that combines the physical and the spiritual, that engenders both awe and love, and that is expressed in celebration and commitment. In other words, that hunger is for worship. But worship is not accomplished only by a transaction uttered in a prayer or a wish. Worship is a posture of life that takes as its primary purpose the understanding of what it really means to love and revere God. It is the most sacred intimacy of all. This is where the broken piece of bread provides the means of expression and transaction

8. politics

8.1. Some of us - we are not abotu politics at all. Some of us we are all about politics

9. Where we're going

9.1. A trap

9.2. The reversal

10. Introduction

10.1. Yet, in an extraordinarily staggering statement about Jesus Christ, Napoleon said something that is almost unexcelled by any political leader. I quote it at length because of its incredible insight. I only wish I had had it with me when I met with these generals. Napoleon expressed these thoughts while he was exiled on the rock of St. Helena. There, the conqueror of civilized Europe had time to reflect on the measure of his accomplishments. He called Count Montholon to his side and asked him, "Can you tell me who Jesus Christ was?" The count declined to respond. Napoleon countered: Well then, I will tell you. Alexander, Caesar, Charlemagne and I myself have founded great empires; but upon what did these creations of our genius depend? Upon force. Jesus alone founded His empire upon love, and to this very day millions will die for Him.... I think I understand something of human nature; and I tell you, all these were men, and I am a man: none else is like Him; Jesus Christ was more than man. . . . I have inspired multitudes with such an enthusiastic devotion that they would have died for me ... but to do this it was necessary that I should be visibly present with the electric influence of my looks, my words, of my voice. When I saw men and spoke to them, I lighted up the flame of self-devotion in their hearts.... Christ alone has succeeded in so raising the mind of man toward the unseen, that it becomes insensible to the barriers of time and space. Across a chasm of eighteen hundred years, Jesus Christ makes a demand which is beyond all others difficult to satisfy; He asks for that which a philosopher may often seek in vain at the hands of his friends, or a father of his children, or a bride of her spouse, or a man of his brother. He asks for the human heart; He will have it entirely to Himself He demands it unconditionally; and forthwith His demand is granted. Wonderful! In defiance of time and space, the soul of man, with all its powers and faculties, becomes an annexation to the empire of Christ. All who sincerely believe in Him, experience that remarkable, supernatural love toward Him. This phenomenon is unaccountable; it is altogether beyond the scope of man's creative powers. Time, the great destroyer, is powerless to extinguish this sacred flame; time can neither exhaust its strength nor put a limit to its range. This is it, which strikes me most; I have often thought of it. This it is which proves to me quite convincingly the Divinity of Jesus Christ.