How Genes Work

Period 2

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How Genes Work by Mind Map: How Genes Work

1. Genes

1.1. Carry out traits through generations

1.2. Made of deoxyribonucleic acid

1.3. Don't carry out actual work

1.4. Service as instruction books for making functional molecules

1.4.1. RNA

1.4.2. Proteins

2. RNA

2.1. Perform chemical reactions in our bodies

2.2. Consist of nucleotides that have been formed together

2.3. Single Stranded

2.4. Is Transcribed from DNA

2.5. temporary mediator between DNA the ribosomes

2.6. much shorter than DNA or the average protein

2.7. carries information from the genome to the ribosomes

3. Protein

3.1. Provide body's main building materials

3.2. the physical outcome of the information contained within the genome

3.3. vary greatly in their activity and they come in all shapes and sizes

3.4. Can't copy themselves

3.5. Uses instructions to copy itself coded in the DNA

3.6. Form Cells:

3.6.1. Architecture

3.6.2. Structural Components

4. DNA

4.1. The sequence of a gene’s individual building blocks

4.2. Nucleotides are labeled:

4.2.1. A: Adenine

4.2.2. T: Thyme

4.2.3. C:Cytosine

4.2.4. G: Guanine

4.3. Nucleotides

4.3.1. Spell out exact order of a protein's building blocks These are called: Amino Acids

4.4. Double Stranded: Double Helix

4.5. Mutations

4.5.1. A kind of typographical error in a gene’s DNA sequence

4.5.2. Can be: A Change A Gap A Duplication

4.5.3. Can cause a gene to encode a protein that works incorrectly or not at all

4.5.4. Not all DNA changes are harmful Some have no effect some produce new versions of proteins that give a survival advantage Helps evolution persue

4.6. hard-copy of the genetic material

4.7. it is extremely important because during transcription, one gene (DNA) is rewritten into an RNA in the nucleus

5. Chromosomes

5.1. Long strings of nucleotides of formed genes

5.2. Every cell contains chromosomes in its nucleus EXCEPT

5.2.1. Eggs

5.2.2. Sperm

5.2.3. Blood Cells

5.3. If the cells were uncoiled, it would be 6 feet long

5.4. If all DNA in your body were connected it would stretch 67 billion miles

5.5. Humans have 23 pairs

5.5.1. Women possess of X &X

5.5.2. Men possess X & Y

6. Diploid and Haploid Cells

6.1. Most of our cells are diploid

6.1.1. they have two sets of chromosomes 23 pairs

6.2. Eggs and sperm are haploid cells

6.2.1. Each haploid cell has only one set of 23 chromosomes so that at fertilization the math will work out A haploid egg cell will combine with a haploid sperm cell to form a diploid cell

7. Post Transcription

7.1. First step in making a protein

7.2. RNA polymerase transcribes DNA to make messenger RNA (mRNA).

7.3. On ribosomes, transfer RNA (tRNA) helps convert mRNA into protein

7.4. Amino acids link up to make a protein.

8. Special RNA

8.1. The gene transcript (the mRNA) transfers information from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes that make protein.

8.2. Ribosomal RNA forms about 60 percent of the ribosomes.

8.3. transfer RNA carries amino acids to the ribosomes.

9. Transcription

9.1. the genetic material of humans and other eukaryotes (organisms that have a nucleus) includes a lot of DNA that doesn't encode proteins.

9.2. the cell needs to trim out the intron sections and then stitch only the exon pieces together . This process is called RNA splicing.

9.2.1. Splicing has to be extremely accurate.

9.2.2. An error in the splicing process, even one that results in the deletion of just one nucleotide in an exon or the of just one nucleotide in an intron, will throw the whole sequence out of alignment.

9.2.3. The result is usually an abnormal protein—or no protein at all.

10. Splicing

10.1. The process by which introns are removed and exons are joined together from an RNA transcript to produce an mRNA molecule.

10.2. Arranging exons in different patterns, called alternative splicing, enables cells to make different proteins from a single gene.

11. Research

11.1. Until recently, researchers looked at genes, and the proteins they encode, one at a time.

11.2. Now, they can look at how large numbers of genes and proteins act, as well as how they interact.

11.3. scientists can identify all of the genes that are transcribed in a cell

11.4. Researchers may be able to learn how to stop or jump-start genes on demand, change the course of a disease or prevent it from ever happening.

12. Translation

12.1. reading the RNA information and fitting the building blocks of a protein together.

12.2. its principal actors are the ribosome and amino acids.

13. Homebox

13.1. short sequence of DNA

13.2. similar DNA sequences in the genes of different organisms

13.3. these genes do something so important and useful that evolution uses the same sequence over and over and permits very few changes in its structure as new species evolve.

13.4. Researchers quickly discovered nearly identical versions of homeobox DNA in almost every non-bacterial cell they examined—from yeast to plants, frogs, worms, beetles, chickens, mice and people.

14. Central Dogma

14.1. when DNA is transcribed to RNA which is translated to protein

14.2. Protein is never translated back into RNA or DNA; DNA is never directly translated to protein

14.3. DNA  RNA protein

15. Three Letter Sequence

15.1. Even though there are only three letters, the sequence of them completely changes the meaning

15.2. RAT - TAR - ART - same 3 letters; completely different meanings.

16. mRNA

16.1. The same mRNA may be used hundreds of times during translation by many ribosomes before it is broken down by the cell.

17. tRNA

17.1. Transfer RNA

17.2. important because it carries a specific amino acid at one end and recognizes and binds mRNA at the other end

17.3. The tRNA that binds to that mRNA codon determines what amino acid will be added to a protein

18. Ribosomes

18.1. protein making factories which translate the genetic code into more proteins

19. Initiation and Stop Codons

19.1. All proteins start with the initiation codon

19.2. AUG All proteins end with stop codons -either UAA, UGA, or UAG.

20. Cells Nucleus

20.1. The nucleus is important because several things besides the holding of the DNA occur here.

20.2. Ribosomes are created in the nucleus in which they translate the genetic code into proteins.

20.3. Transcription also occurs in the cell's nucleus.