How Genes Work

Period 2

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How Genes Work by Mind Map: How Genes Work

1. RNA

1.1. Perform chemical reactions in our bodies

1.2. Consist of nucleotides that have been formed together

1.3. Single Stranded

1.4. Is Transcribed from DNA

1.5. temporary mediator between DNA the ribosomes

1.6. much shorter than DNA or the average protein

1.7. carries information from the genome to the ribosomes

2. DNA

2.1. The sequence of a gene’s individual building blocks

2.2. Nucleotides are labeled:

2.2.1. A: Adenine

2.2.2. T: Thyme

2.2.3. C:Cytosine

2.2.4. G: Guanine

2.3. Nucleotides

2.3.1. Spell out exact order of a protein's building blocks These are called: Amino Acids

2.4. Double Stranded: Double Helix

2.5. Mutations

2.5.1. A kind of typographical error in a gene’s DNA sequence

2.5.2. Can be: A Change A Gap A Duplication

2.5.3. Can cause a gene to encode a protein that works incorrectly or not at all

2.5.4. Not all DNA changes are harmful Some have no effect some produce new versions of proteins that give a survival advantage Helps evolution persue

2.6. hard-copy of the genetic material

2.7. it is extremely important because during transcription, one gene (DNA) is rewritten into an RNA in the nucleus

3. Research

3.1. Until recently, researchers looked at genes, and the proteins they encode, one at a time.

3.2. Now, they can look at how large numbers of genes and proteins act, as well as how they interact.

3.3. scientists can identify all of the genes that are transcribed in a cell

3.4. Researchers may be able to learn how to stop or jump-start genes on demand, change the course of a disease or prevent it from ever happening.

4. Homebox

4.1. short sequence of DNA

4.2. similar DNA sequences in the genes of different organisms

4.3. these genes do something so important and useful that evolution uses the same sequence over and over and permits very few changes in its structure as new species evolve.

4.4. Researchers quickly discovered nearly identical versions of homeobox DNA in almost every non-bacterial cell they examined—from yeast to plants, frogs, worms, beetles, chickens, mice and people.

5. Central Dogma

5.1. when DNA is transcribed to RNA which is translated to protein

5.2. Protein is never translated back into RNA or DNA; DNA is never directly translated to protein

5.3. DNA  RNA protein

6. Three Letter Sequence

6.1. Even though there are only three letters, the sequence of them completely changes the meaning

6.2. RAT - TAR - ART - same 3 letters; completely different meanings.

7. tRNA

7.1. Transfer RNA

7.2. important because it carries a specific amino acid at one end and recognizes and binds mRNA at the other end

7.3. The tRNA that binds to that mRNA codon determines what amino acid will be added to a protein

8. Ribosomes

8.1. protein making factories which translate the genetic code into more proteins

9. Initiation and Stop Codons

9.1. All proteins start with the initiation codon

9.2. AUG All proteins end with stop codons -either UAA, UGA, or UAG.

10. Genes

10.1. Carry out traits through generations

10.2. Made of deoxyribonucleic acid

10.3. Don't carry out actual work

10.4. Service as instruction books for making functional molecules

10.4.1. RNA

10.4.2. Proteins

11. Protein

11.1. Provide body's main building materials

11.2. the physical outcome of the information contained within the genome

11.3. vary greatly in their activity and they come in all shapes and sizes

11.4. Can't copy themselves

11.5. Uses instructions to copy itself coded in the DNA

11.6. Form Cells:

11.6.1. Architecture

11.6.2. Structural Components

12. Chromosomes

12.1. Long strings of nucleotides of formed genes

12.2. Every cell contains chromosomes in its nucleus EXCEPT

12.2.1. Eggs

12.2.2. Sperm

12.2.3. Blood Cells

12.3. If the cells were uncoiled, it would be 6 feet long

12.4. If all DNA in your body were connected it would stretch 67 billion miles

12.5. Humans have 23 pairs

12.5.1. Women possess of X &X

12.5.2. Men possess X & Y

13. Diploid and Haploid Cells

13.1. Most of our cells are diploid

13.1.1. they have two sets of chromosomes 23 pairs

13.2. Eggs and sperm are haploid cells

13.2.1. Each haploid cell has only one set of 23 chromosomes so that at fertilization the math will work out A haploid egg cell will combine with a haploid sperm cell to form a diploid cell

14. Post Transcription

14.1. First step in making a protein

14.2. RNA polymerase transcribes DNA to make messenger RNA (mRNA).

14.3. On ribosomes, transfer RNA (tRNA) helps convert mRNA into protein

14.4. Amino acids link up to make a protein.

15. Special RNA

15.1. The gene transcript (the mRNA) transfers information from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes that make protein.

15.2. Ribosomal RNA forms about 60 percent of the ribosomes.

15.3. transfer RNA carries amino acids to the ribosomes.

16. Transcription

16.1. the genetic material of humans and other eukaryotes (organisms that have a nucleus) includes a lot of DNA that doesn't encode proteins.

16.2. the cell needs to trim out the intron sections and then stitch only the exon pieces together . This process is called RNA splicing.

16.2.1. Splicing has to be extremely accurate.

16.2.2. An error in the splicing process, even one that results in the deletion of just one nucleotide in an exon or the of just one nucleotide in an intron, will throw the whole sequence out of alignment.

16.2.3. The result is usually an abnormal protein—or no protein at all.

17. Splicing

17.1. The process by which introns are removed and exons are joined together from an RNA transcript to produce an mRNA molecule.

17.2. Arranging exons in different patterns, called alternative splicing, enables cells to make different proteins from a single gene.

18. Translation

18.1. reading the RNA information and fitting the building blocks of a protein together.

18.2. its principal actors are the ribosome and amino acids.

19. mRNA

19.1. The same mRNA may be used hundreds of times during translation by many ribosomes before it is broken down by the cell.

20. Cells Nucleus

20.1. The nucleus is important because several things besides the holding of the DNA occur here.

20.2. Ribosomes are created in the nucleus in which they translate the genetic code into proteins.

20.3. Transcription also occurs in the cell's nucleus.