Child Labour

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Child Labour by Mind Map: Child Labour

1. Dust in coal mines would get into miners' lungs and cause health problems

1.1. Coal mines had bad ventilation which meant dust which lead to TB and lung cancer

2. Other jobs

2.1. would have to work past midnight setting pins at a bowling alley

2.2. polish boots for people in the streets

2.3. worked dangerous jobs such as lumber work

3. Many children began to work at 3:30 in the morning till 5:30 at night

4. worked long hours with no breaks

5. Factories were often damp, dark, and dirty.

5.1. Kids worked in fields picking crops for 12-18 hours. It was very backbreaking work.

6. It took a long time for the U.S to see that child labor was wrong. By 1889, 28 states had owtlawed child labor.

7. Salesmen: they did this job for their families and were more successful than others.

8. Miners had rapid skeleteal growth, smaller sizes, greater risk of hearing lose and lower heat tolerance.

8.1. New node

9. Cotton Mills

9.1. were decapated

9.2. got sickness

9.2.1. Aditi

10. had to climb on the spinning machine to mend broken thread and to ut back the empty bobins

11. Children worked in small coal mines. Adults couldn't fit into the small places so they hired kids.

11.1. In glass factories, they did not need adult s to power the machine.

12. Hawkers, news boys, and canneries.

13. Types of jobs

13.1. They could also get a farming job. Children would pick crops and do that same job all day long.

13.1.1. Children had no legal protection.

13.2. Cotton mills: children needed no skill, and owners would hire kids for less.

13.3. Meat-packing houses

13.4. Shoe shiners

14. Health problems

15. Working conditions

15.1. Children worked in harvesting crops in extreme temperature for long hours was considered normal for these children.

15.2. Children also worked as paper boys or newsies. If they worked in the rain, they often got pnemonia.

16. no more than 8 hours of work

17. Underweight

18. if a child is late

18.1. fired

18.2. pay decline

19. Silk mills: they would buy kids from orphanages. An owner of a silk mill took children from workhouses in London to work there.

20. Sardine packaging had long sharp knives and slippery floors which didn't end up very well.

21. A hospital said that they get over 1,000 injuries a year from children who worked.

22. By the end of the day the children became very exhausted and careless about the machinery.

22.1. The loud machinery lead to hearing loss.

23. Most children started working at the age of 5.

24. Children often worked for 12-18 hours a day and got paid very little.

25. Many children were underweight, stunted growth, curvature of the spine in developed diseases related to work environment.

26. They could also work in different factories like: glass factories and textile factories/mills.

27. Then in 1938 Congress passed the Fair Labor Standard Act. It fixed minimum ages of 16 for working during school hours, 14 for some jobs after school, and 18 for dangerous work, this was called the Keating-Owens Act"

28. The factories were very dangerous places which lead to injuries scuh as legs and fingers getting chopped off.

28.1. Farm miners routinely used knives and any sharp tools and they can cut themselves with, which they don't have any clean water, they would get infected.

28.1.1. Children who suffered accidents in factories were often abandoned from the moment that the accident occurs and received no medical attention.

28.2. Not only this but there was toxins and poisoned fumes that even lead to deaths.

28.2.1. One of the poisoned gas that was most popular was methane.

28.2.2. The young workers were feeling sick in the first week of working because of the fumes and dust

28.3. Children factory workers produced drugs like cigars and smoked them.

28.4. The factories were low roofed; ill-ventilated; and ill-drained.

29. By the early 1900's, Americans began to call child labor slavery and were demanding an end.

29.1. In 1918 and 1922, laws were presented to abolish child labor. However, they were claimed unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.

30. Some people who worked in coal mines and cotton mills were prone to diseases such as tuberculosis and bronchitis.

31. One person's arm was ripped off and no conpensation was paid.

32. Period 1

32.1. Child labor laws/attitudes

32.1.1. During the great deppression all Americans wanted all available jobs to go to adults.

32.1.2. In 1924, Congress proposed a constitutional amendment prohibiting child labor, but the states did not ratify it.

32.1.3. In 1905 a group of progressive reformers founded the National Child Labor Committee.

32.1.4. In 1813, Connecticut passes a law saying that working shildren must have schooling, afterwards, 28 states followed in their footsteps.

33. Period 4

33.1. Working conditions

33.1.1. Children who worked in seafood stores, and restraunts usually cut fish and are handling very sharp objects so they usually got cuts and those cuts lead to very very deadly infections that they didn't have medicine for.

33.1.2. Dangers of Machinery

33.1.2.1. Machinery accidents caused hospitals to be filled patients that were young and had been hurt by machines

33.1.3. Hard Labor

33.1.3.1. Some kids worked 12-18 hours a day and got paid very little

33.1.3.2. There were about 2 millions child workers in 1910

33.1.3.3. Boys got kicked when they didn't do their job

33.1.3.4. Some kids didn't evem know their ABC's because they started at such an early age

33.1.4. Men would trick kids into working for them

33.1.5. Disease Infected Factories

33.1.5.1. Many kids would be dirty before they worked. Many of the times, children wouldn't wash their hands.

33.1.5.2. There was so much pollution in the factories that it caused mill fever.

33.1.5.3. Because there was so much dust and floating cotton fibers, it caused tuberculosis.

33.1.5.4. Many mines go so dusty, that the thick dust got deep into the worker's lungs

33.2. Health problems

33.2.1. In coal mines there was very little ventalation because there were so far down.

33.2.1.1. Kids in these environments developed tiberculosis, or lung cancer.

33.2.2. Since kids were smaller then the adults the kids could fit in smaller and much more dangerous places

33.2.3. the triangle company used to lock the doors where the workers did their work. it was estimated that about 200 people died from this company alone

33.2.4. Some kids who worked with sharp knives usually got bumped and they cut off their fingers.

33.3. Laws against child labor were declined

33.3.1. People formed group against child labor

33.4. Child labor laws/attitudes

33.4.1. Small amounts of space

33.4.2. Dangerous condition

33.4.2.1. Open machines

33.4.2.2. Nails on floor

33.4.2.3. diseases

33.4.2.4. No lighting or ventelation

33.4.3. No minimum wage

33.4.3.1. Paid less than adults

33.4.4. No health care

33.4.5. Lack education

33.4.5.1. Don't know ABC

33.4.6. Punishment

33.4.6.1. If a child left the factory then they could be sent to prision

33.4.6.2. if not fast enough, tired, or talking a child was wipped

33.4.7. Laws

33.4.7.1. Minimum age of 14 manufactoring

33.4.7.2. Minimum age of 16- mining

33.4.7.3. Declared unconstitutional

33.4.8. Poverty for many kids and families because factories pay very little.

33.4.9. Early 1900's

33.4.9.1. 1912

33.4.9.1.1. Childrens Bureau

33.5. Groups formed against child labor

33.5.1. Deprived people of childhood

33.5.2. poverty

33.5.3. No education

33.6. Types of jobs

33.6.1. They worked in mills

33.6.1.1. earned only 48 cents a day

33.6.1.2. 10 out of 50 workers were children

33.6.2. They were newsies

33.6.2.1. had to work very late at night

33.6.2.2. had to jump on moving vehicles to get around

33.6.2.3. fist fights was common for opposing newsies

33.6.3. They were miners

33.6.3.1. a supervisor beats the kids to make them listen

33.6.3.2. dust would get into their lungs

33.6.4. They worked in factories

33.6.4.1. youngsters smoked in the factories

33.6.5. Sea food workers

33.6.5.1. worked from 3 a.m. to 5 p.m.

33.6.5.1.1. bad pay and horrible conditions

33.6.5.2. worked with large, sharpe knifes

33.6.5.3. easy to have an accident due to slippery floors and carelessness of children

33.6.6. Salesmen

33.6.6.1. worked late at night

33.6.6.2. younger kids worked 6 hours a day

33.6.6.3. stuck with the job for years

33.6.7. Fields and farm work

33.6.7.1. picked dangerous materials such as tobacco

33.6.7.2. worked 12 hours with only 1 break

33.6.7.3. owners took a huge percentage of what was picked

33.6.7.4. back breaking labor

34. Period 6

34.1. Child labor laws/attitudes

34.1.1. Charles Dickins helped publicize the novel about the evils of child labor with his book Oliver Twist.

34.1.1.1. Britain passed laws that shortened the working hours, improved the conditions of the factories, and made the age of working procedures higher. (1802-1878)

34.1.1.1.1. The United States passed laws that made children have education before working. This law was passed in 1813.

34.1.2. Boys started at the age of seven, and worked 12 to 18 hours a week.

34.1.3. In 1938, congress made it so the minimum age of working hours was 16.

34.1.3.1. The U.S government has a ton of laws regulating child labor but there is no legal protection for children working the fields.

34.2. Health problems

34.2.1. Youngsters smoked at work

34.2.2. Cuts at work often lead to disease and infections which could not be cured

34.2.3. Dust and dirt lead to impaired vision

34.2.4. Noise of machines lead to hearing problems

34.2.5. Employers would not cover the medicalvexpenses of their employees even if their injury was work related

34.2.6. Many children had back problems and were underweight due to extreme labor

34.2.6.1. Many children were whipped as a punishment

34.2.7. Children who were injured at work were often left with no medical attention

34.2.8. Children were sleep deprived because they worked 12-18 hours a day

34.3. Types of jobs

34.3.1. Agricultural and Sea Work

34.3.1.1. Picked crops

34.3.1.1.1. They picking fruits and vegetables. They picked corn

34.3.1.2. Planted Crops

34.3.1.3. Shrimp

34.3.2. Shining shoes

34.3.2.1. Kids from 12 to 14 years of age would participate in this job

34.3.3. Lumber Yard

34.3.3.1. Kids would carry lumber form the main area and bring/load it.

34.3.4. Coal Mining

34.3.4.1. Were able to fit in tight spots that adults can't fit

34.3.5. Factories

34.3.5.1. Would fix machinery that older people wouldn't fit.

34.3.5.2. They worked late at night and they started early in the morning.

34.3.6. Assembly Line Work

34.3.6.1. They are around 11 years old. Had to climb up spinning frames to fix machinery.

34.3.7. Newsies

34.3.7.1. Young people would sell newspapers to people

34.4. Working conditions

34.4.1. No protection

34.4.1.1. no shoes

34.4.1.2. no gloves

34.4.1.3. became sick

34.4.1.4. lost limbs

34.4.1.4.1. no medical assistance

34.4.1.5. Not many children could afford protective clothing.

34.4.2. Payed less

34.4.2.1. 10%-20% of an average adults wage

34.4.3. Minors

34.4.3.1. couldn't see because it was so dirty.

34.4.3.2. Usually started working at age 5 and life expectancy was 25

34.4.3.2.1. Fell into cart paths

34.4.3.2.2. Gas explosions

34.4.3.2.3. Tuburculosis and bronchitis

34.4.4. Were beaten if late to work

34.4.5. Usually worked 12-13 hours

34.4.5.1. 6 Days a week

34.4.6. Fit into unsafe dirty places

34.4.6.1. New node

34.4.7. Pysical and Mental Fitigue

35. Period 3

35.1. Health problems

35.1.1. The workers would get cut from the unsafe environment and the open wounds would cause baceria and disease in the body.

35.1.1.1. Also children didn't recieve enough sleep because they were forced to work extremely late.

35.1.1.1.1. Also in the Mines the dust penetrated the lungs creating bronchitis.

35.1.2. Also if a child was injured from a machine he was just left there with no medical attention

35.1.2.1. Children who worked at cigar factories often smoked causing bronchitis and cancer in the lungs. Possibly death.

35.1.3. Also the constant noise of the machines caused hearing problems.

35.1.4. In the mines there was lots of dust and sometimes the workers had trouble seeing.

35.2. Types of jobs

35.2.1. Spinners in cotton mills worked at night and make forty eight cents a day. Mills are filled with youngsters.

35.2.2. Children worked in mines that had unprotected cages and the dust that often made it hard to see and penetrated their lungs.

35.2.3. They had jobs that involve them crawling into small unsanitary spaces such as mines and mills.

35.2.4. They would climb up to the soinning wheels to fix loose bobbins.

35.3. Child labor laws/attitudes

35.3.1. The factory Act of 1891 raised the minimum age to 10- 11 to be able to work.

35.3.2. Businesses liked to hire children because they worked unskilled jobs for lower wages.

35.3.3. The Factory Act of 1874 took of 30 minutes from working in Textile factories.

35.3.4. Britain was the first country to pass laws on child labor.

35.3.4.1. Improved conditions, raised the age, and other European countries followed Btritan's example.

35.3.4.2. Migrant child laborers have no protection from labor laws.

35.3.5. In 1904, Progressive Reformers founded the National Child Labor Comittee to abolish child labor.

35.3.5.1. Luis Hein took pictures of children laboring working in factories, packaging plants, mines, and canaries and other jobs that children did.

35.3.6. The Factory Act of 1867 was meant ot restrict the hours children could work.

35.3.7. The Factory Act of 1850 made it so that children had to work from 5:30 am to 8:30 pm and they had to work from 58- 60 hours per week.

35.3.8. In 1916, Congress passed the Keating Owens Act, which established a minimum age of 14 for workers in manufactoring, 16 for mining, and documentary of age. Also, a maximim work day of 8 hours and workders under 16 can't work at night. However, it was later ruled unconstitutional.

35.3.9. The Factory Act of 1844 limited hours to 63 hours per week.

35.3.9.1. Kids can only work 6 and a half hours a day.

35.4. Working conditions

35.4.1. From the slideshow, you could see the working conditions they were put in. Some had to work in fields, others in crammed factories, and in some places where they worked they didn't have backs to there chairs.

35.4.2. Some conditions were where they had to work one really big job such as working four sides of a cotton wheel.

35.4.3. Some were beaten if they were bad. Others lost fingers from the machines around them, or the ones they were working on.

35.4.3.1. Children were often hit with a strap to make then work faster.

35.4.3.1.1. Children who were considerd potential run aways were placed in irons.

35.4.4. Worked from early in the morning to late at night, so some had to work in the dark.Might work from 12-18 hours a day.

35.4.5. Worked for long hours in dangerous conditions for little pay.If they were too small they would have to climb onto the spinning crane to mened broken threads.

36. Period 7

36.1. Working conditions

36.1.1. Illness

36.1.1.1. The children get verbal as well as physicall abuse

36.1.1.2. Young children would have to stay up late and handle unsafe tools or machinary

36.1.1.3. Many children were underweight. They suffered from stunted growth, and curvature of the spine. They delveloped diseases related from their work envirorments.

36.1.1.3.1. Tuberculosis, and Bronchitis

36.1.1.4. Many suffered from illnesses like blood poisining or TB because of workinging in harsh whether and unsanitary factories

36.1.1.4.1. Because of the open machinery, many children were easily injured. Their injuries could get infected because the factories were unsanitary.

36.1.2. Machinery

36.1.3. Work spaces

36.1.3.1. Many of the children were exposed to smoke and dust

36.1.3.2. THey had to work outside in the cold and rain

36.2. Health problems

36.2.1. Many children were injured, and these injuries turned into infections due to the poor and unsanitary conditions.

36.2.1.1. One hospital reproted that it treated thousands of people every year for wounds caused by machines in factories.

36.2.2. Physical and mental featigue caused by hard work and long hours.

36.2.2.1. Caused high accident rate

36.2.3. Children that were injured were immediately punished or whipped.

36.2.3.1. Lead to infections

36.2.3.1.1. Children recieved no medical attention while getting hurt.

36.2.4. In 1842, a German visitor saw many chilren in the streets that were armless and legless.

36.2.4.1. "Living in the midst of the army just returned from a campaign".

36.2.5. Masters would beat children if they stopped their machines after an accident.

36.2.5.1. The children would be beaten until blood gushed out of their bodies.

36.2.6. A girl named Mary Richards, who was not even ten years of age, was killed while working at a factory. While working, her apron was caught in a machine, and every bone in her body was broken resulting in a very painful death.

36.2.7. Children started to smoke, damaging their respitory system.

36.3. Types of jobs

36.3.1. Bowling Alley Boys

36.3.1.1. They would replace the fallen pins.

36.3.2. The Mill

36.3.2.1. Children began working before age 7, tending machines and spinning mills or hauling heavy loads.

36.3.2.1.1. Some kids were so small that they had to climb up on a spinning frame to mend broken thread and to put back bobbins.

36.3.3. Newsies

36.3.3.1. They woudl sell newspapers to the business men.

36.3.4. Sea Food Workers

36.3.4.1. New node

36.3.4.1.1. Oyster shuckers would work in canning factories that were very dangerous.

36.3.5. Miners

36.3.5.1. Working in mines was dangerous

36.3.5.1.1. Trapped in mines

36.3.5.1.2. There were also diseases that the kids could get such as the black lung diseases.

36.3.5.1.3. Injuries were at risk.

36.4. Child labor laws/attitudes

36.4.1. National Child Labor Committee

36.4.1.1. This group was established in 1904. Their goal was to abolish child labor.

36.4.2. Lewis Hine

36.4.2.1. A New York schoolteacher and photographer. He felt so strongly about the abuse of children as workers that he quit his teaching job, and became an investigative photographer for the National Child Labor Committee

36.4.2.1.1. He photographed children in coal mines, in meatpacking houses, in textile mills, and in cannaries. He even interviewed some of the children doing these tough jobs.

36.4.3. Church groups, labor groups, and teachers were outraged.

36.4.4. Britain was the first country to pass any kind of child labor laws.

36.4.5. In 1802-1878, a series of laws shortened working hours, improved conditions, and raised the age of which children could work in America. A few years later, many European countries adopted these laws as well.

36.4.6. In 1916, Congress passed the Keating-Owens Act that established the following child labor standards: a minimum age of 14 for workers in manufacturing and 16 for workers in mining; a maximum workday of 8 hours; prohbition of night work for workers under age 16; and a documenr=tary proof of age.

36.4.7. New node

37. yeet