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Chem51 Ch6/7 brain dump by Mind Map: Chem51 Ch6/7
brain dump
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Chem51 Ch6/7 brain dump

solutions

concentration

ppm

ppb

molarity

Equivalents

percent, by weight, by volume

dilution

ci x vi = cf x vf

solubility

like dissolves like

similarity of IMF determins solubility

solvation

molecules of solvent surrounding solute

hydration

molecules of water surrounding solute atoms, ions or molecules

phase

solid in liquid

liquid in liquid

gas in liquid

solid in solid

liquid in liquid

gas in gas

Untitled

lipids

nonpolar

fatty acids + glycerol = glycerides

monoglycerides, glycerol backbone and 1 fatty acid

diglycerides, glycerol backbone and 2 fatty acids

triglycerides, glycerol backbone and 3 fatty acids

glycerophospholipids, glycerol + fatty acids + phosphate + ....

dissolve only in nonpolar solvents

hydrophobic

cell membrane

transport

diffusion

active transport

passive transport

proteins

phospholipid bilayer

channels

carbohydrates

diffusion

greater concentration to lower concentration

higher partial pressure to lower partial pressue

osmosis

naked egg experiment

semipermeable membrane

crenate, crenation, deflate or shrink due to loss of water

lyse, lysis, swells or bursts due to too much water

hypotonic

less concentrated in comparison

cell in hypotonic solution will lyse or burst

water will flow from hypotonic solution (more water) into cell (less water)

hypertonic

more concentrated in comparison

cell in hypertonic solution will crenate or deflate

water will flow out of cell (more water) to the solution (less water)

isotonic

same concentration

no change in cell in an isotonic solution

need to keep our bodily fluids isotonic with blood to avoid damage by lysis or crenation

isotonic fluid replacement solutions, Dextrose 5%, saline 0.90%, Untitled

intermolecular forces

London forces

only IMF for nonpolar molecules

weakest IMF, but if a lot of London forces act together, can be very strong

also called dispersion forces

also called induced dipole, temporary dipole induced by an ion or other force, temporary charge on one molecule induces dipole in its neighbor

temporary dipoles, due to shifting electron configuration, happens as molecules move around

dipole-dipole

permament dipoles on polar molecules

stronger IMF

partial positive and partial negative charges

polar molecules like water, etc.

hydrogen bonding

special kind of very strong dipole-dipole

hydrogen bond donor, H covalently bonded to N, O, F, N, O, F very electronegative draw electrons towards them creates strong partial positive on covalently bonded H

hydrogen bond acceptor, N, O, F with lone pair(s), lone pairs strong partial negative charge that attract the partial positive H

ion-dipole

interaction between ions with formal charge and dipoles with partial charges

also called van der Waals

IMF and phase change

boiling point

molar mass

kinds of intermolecular forces

disruptive forces vs attractive forces

heat of reaction

exothermic

endothermic

mixtures

solutions

homogenous

clear

solute of very small particles

colloids

homogenous

cloudy

scatters light

solute of small particles

won't settle

can't be filtered

suspensions

larger particles

solute can be filtered

will settle after a while

esterification

reactions

hydrolysis

condensation

miscellaneous

1 g / 1 mL for water

serial dilutions