Group Display of Aggression

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Group Display of Aggression by Mind Map: Group Display of Aggression

1. Emergent Norm Theory - Turner and Killian (1957)

1.1. Crowd behaviour is 'normless' so the situation is unique - we look to see what other people are doing and base our behaviour on that

1.2. If one person's behaviour stand out, they will get the attention of the crowd - this behaviour is gradually taken on as the norm for that group, which ultimately governs the behaviour of the group as a whole.

1.3. Understands that crowds are not a group of passive people, they are a logically thinking mass of individuals

1.4. Explains why crowd behaviour can sometimes be unpredictable

1.5. Doesn't explain how norms might emerge

1.6. Does not explain all crowd behaviours e.g. behaviour which looks irrational (a crowd running out of a building) may in fact be rational (the building is on fire).

1.7. Provides a different explanation for earlier models ie. convergence theory

1.8. Does not take into account non-verbal processes which occur in crowds, so it can be seen as incomplete

1.9. Explains the standing up of spectators when national anthem is played at sports games

2. Value-added Theory - Smelser (1963)

2.1. Certain situations or conditions are needed in order for a group of social movement to develop

2.1.1. The actual social situation and conditions must allow for collective action

2.1.2. Some parts of the social system do not function effectively

2.1.3. The shared view assigns causes and determines a response or action

2.1.4. Collective belief is strengthened, the search for alternatives gathers pace

2.1.5. Leaders and workers emerge, hierarchy is established

2.1.6. Agencies of social control attempt to interfere with the operation of the collective

2.2. Social life and the way we follow within it affect how individuals behave - if society is not well regulated it might change an individual's view on appropriate behaviour

2.2.1. Individual assess their own needs - if society offers incentives and rewards, the individual will behave - self interest is more important than the respect of others

2.3. Shows how human behaviour is often the et result of careful regulation at a societal level

2.4. Sztompka (2004) - group behaviour is the result of a logical and systematic evolution through progressive stages of development

2.5. This is a theoretical viewpoint based upon Smelser's own 'Western industrialised' educational and socio-economic background - does not account for cultural differences

2.6. Does not take into account the complexities of crowd behaviour

3. Freud

3.1. The mindset of an individual in a crowd differs from their mindset when alone - there is a merging of minds based on sharing the same opinion - inhibitions are lowered.

3.2. Outdated? Freud provided a very early contribution to the analysis of group behaviour

3.3. Provided other researchers with a foundation upon which to study group behaviour

3.4. Freud did not follow the hypothetico-deductive method

4. Contagion Theory - Le Bon (1896)

4.1. Crowd behaviour is a result of individuals' personalities - the atmosphere of the group causes contagion and group members fall under the influence of a collective mind

4.2. Group members are suggestible, taking on the view of the group and imitating actions of others in the group - like a sponge.

4.3. The group provides a situation in which contagion can occur

4.4. 'Group mind'

5. Evaluation

5.1. To assume there is only one cause for group behaviour is problematic

5.1.1. Levy (1989) - every theory of crowd behaviour tends to take a slightly different perspective

5.2. Theories of crowd behaviour are hard to test since they occur quickly, are difficult to anticipate, happen several at a time and leave few traces - this means they are not conductive to interviewing and frequently produce unreliable, unremembered accounts

5.3. Not all crowd situations result in aggression -i.e. the Hindu festival Mela - largest gathering of people on earth - crowds behave well and increased generosity, support and orderly behaviour was noted