Learning Theories

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Learning Theories by Mind Map: Learning Theories

1. Cognitivism

1.1. Study of the mind and how it obtains, processes, and stores information

1.2. Learners are active participants in their learning

1.3. The mind functions like a computer processor.

1.4. Information comes in as input.

1.5. The mind processes the information for the time being, and the information is stored away to be retrieved later

1.6. Learning is shaped by acquired learning strategies and prior knowledge and attitudes, called schemas

1.7. The cognitive view of learning is teacher-centered, and information must be presented in an organized manner in order to achieve the most efficient learning.

1.8. People learn better when they can build on what they already understand (Schemas).

2. Constructivism

2.1. Study of a learner's own construction of knowledge

2.2. Student's knowledge is constructed through his/her own personal experiences and interactions with the outside world.

2.3. The learner takes in new information and gives meaning to it using his or her own prior attitudes, beliefs, and experiences as references.

2.4. Learners are active participants in the construction of knowledge while the instructor serves as a facilitator

2.5. Social interaction with others helps the learner put meaning to information

2.6. Zone of Proximal Devleopment

2.7. Student develops greater level of meaning from interaction with other students and teacher.

2.8. Constructivist activities are generally relevant to the learner and real-world based

3. Implications for Education

3.1. Design presentations so slides are more visual instead of text heavy.

3.2. Practice for retention.

3.3. Use of mneumonic devices common

3.4. Use advanced organizers, mental maps and chunking so information is presented in meaningful chunks.

3.5. Concept maping is used.

3.6. Elextronic note taking, Prezi, Mindmeister, One note and Goodnotes are examples of programs used to support Cognitivism principles.

4. Course concept connections

4.1. Present information in meaningful chunks.

4.2. Concept mapping work well within the principles of Cognitivism.

4.3. Electronic note taking, goodnotes and Word track changes can be used by teachers an students.

4.4. Schema are memory structures written in Long Term memory by working memory.

4.5. Use instructional organizers and mapping to assist with chunking of material.

5. Implications for Education

5.1. Students monitor and direct their own learning and performance.

5.2. Concentration on Problem based learning.

5.3. Teacher acts as facilitator.

5.4. Project based learning is a key strategy and approach.

5.5. Lessons are designed around authentic task.

5.6. Discovery learning an case-based learning are included in the planning of lessons.

5.7. Collaboration between students, teachers, and the outside community helps make learning meaningful and connected.

6. Course concept connections

6.1. Learning by making includes hands-on activities and projects. Leads to the development of lessons that challenge students to use higher level thinking skills.

6.2. Gizmos and other simulations use to expand upon the foundations of previous learning.

6.2.1. Voice Threads, Animoto

6.3. Webquest

6.4. Virtual, and real science fair projects assigned to an authentic learning experience can be connected to this principle.

7. Behaviorism

7.1. Learner viewed as passive.

7.2. Associating the stimulus with response.

7.3. Behavior is strengthened by the reinforcement.

7.4. Learner responds to a stimulus.

7.5. Behavior is shaped by the reinforcement.

7.6. Positive as well as negative reinforcement increase the probability of the repetition of behavior.

7.7. Learning is therefore defined as a change in the behavior of the learner.

8. Connectivism

8.1. Knowledge exists outside of the learner.

8.2. The learner makes connections between information to build knowledge.

8.3. The connections that learners make help them create their own learning network.

8.4. Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions.

8.5. Learning is the process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.

8.6. Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known.

8.7. Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate learning.

8.8. Maintaining current and accurate knowledge is the purpose in connectivist activities.

8.9. Decision-making is a learning process as information can change and what is viewed as correct one day may be incorrect the next.

9. Implications for Education

9.1. Practice makes perfect

9.2. Use of Direct Instruction

9.3. Teacher Directed

9.4. Use of Lecture and Demonstration followed by practice.

9.5. Focus on observable and measureable learning outcomes

9.6. Emphasize performance and practice.

9.7. Reinforce accomplishments with appropriate feedback.

10. Course concept connections

10.1. Direct Presentations

10.2. Math Blaster

10.3. Student Response Systems.

10.4. Computer assisted instruction.

10.5. Brain Pop: Watch animations and complete quizzes.

10.6. Computers act as tutorial aids

11. Implications for Education

11.1. Learning is a process of creating connections and developing a network.

11.2. Build a network of knowledge sources and use them when needed.

11.3. Students continue to upgrade knowledge as part of the learning activities.

11.4. Learning is a process of connecting specialized information sources.

11.5. Students learn how to find information, decide if the information is valid and how, when and where to us e the material.

12. Course concept connections

12.1. Use of twitter, facebook and RSS feeds fit into the idea centered around Connectivism.

12.2. Students bookmark apps for availability and updating of information.

12.3. Video conferencing allows for learning and connections for learning to happen around to world. Conferencing with Chris Hatfield about his experience in space would be an example.

12.4. Students learn to connect with webcam, discussion forums and e-mail as part of their learning experience and development.

12.5. Networking is the learning.

12.6. Using technology support teacher development in the form of Professional Learning Networks (PLN)

12.7. Search Engines, Google, Yahoo, Bing.

12.8. Digital Citizenship