Challenges to Liberalism Related to Foreign Policy: Cold War

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Challenges to Liberalism Related to Foreign Policy: Cold War by Mind Map: Challenges to Liberalism Related to Foreign Policy: Cold War

1. Expansionism: A political & military policy of taking over additional territory through the violation of another country's sovereignty, for reasons that can include defence, access to resources or markets, national pride, or perceived racial superiority.

1.1. Joseph Stalin, who was part of the "Super powers" in the Soviet Union, believed that expansionism was a good way to get "command of the world economy", believing things such as keeping Germany divided, and to expand Soviet influences to surrounding areas to help Europe recover from the war and make Europe better and stronger.

1.2. People and places involved: Joseph Stalin, Germany, and other parts of Europe. Conflicts: The differences in ideas between the two "super powers" (Soviet Union and The United States) created somewhat of a clash, becoming clear that both countries had very different ideas for the future of Europe.

2. Containment: The US Cold War foreign policy of stopping the spread of communism by establishing strategic allies around the world through trade and military alliances

2.1. Back in 1947, President Harry S. Truman of the United States wanted to stop Soviet Union from expansionism, in order to contain the communism. However, in order to avoid conflict between the Soviet Union, the United States decided to put their ideologies aside in order to keep an alliance and preventing in any war.

2.2. Key people and places: President Harry S. Truman in the United States. Conflicts: Deciding between going with their ideological beliefs for the country and staying allied with Soviet Union

3. Deterrence: The Cold War foreign policy of both major powers, aiming to deter the military advances of the other through developing and building up arms, especially nuclear weapons. Deterrence depends on each side creating the perception that it is willing to use its weapons.

3.1. Due to many bombings in the past and the Soviet Union makings of nuclear arms, it became clear that that if there were to be a hot war between the superpowers, it would kill not only them, but also the entire world. This is where 'deterrence' was identified when both superpowers had the nuclear weapons to to destroy each other, they were deterred from taking such actions in order to prevent any undesirable nuclear wars.

3.2. Key people and places: Joseph Stalin, Harry Truman. Russia, the United States, Japan and Germany. Conflict: By having these powerful weapons, an unnecessary war could be started which would kill millions, and destroying the planet.

4. Brinkmanship: International behaviour for foreign policy that takes a country to the brink of war; pushing one's demands to the point of threatening military action (for example, the showdown between the United States and the Soviet Union over Cuba in October 1962

4.1. During the Cold War, brinkmanship involved the Soviet Union to use fear tactics and intimidation strategies in order to get the opposing side (in this case the United States during the Cuban Missile Crisis) to back down. Both sides had an agreement not to let the war get so out of hand in order for it to have to involve any nuclear weapons, however, the more each side pushed towards each other, the harder it was to not let things get out of hand. The Cuban Missile Crisis was the closest it ever came during the cold war to use nuclear weapons.

4.2. Key people and places: President John F. Kennedy of the United States was involved in the Cuban Crisis after being elected in 1960. Soviet Premier Khrushchev of Russia. Conflict: Both the United States and Russia refuses to back down, in fear of looking weak, which almost leads to a deadly nuclear war.

5. Detente: A period of the Cold War from the mid-1960s to 1979, during which the major powers tried to lessen the tensions between them through diplomacy, treaties, arms talks and reductions, and cultural exchanges

5.1. The super powers both knew of the dangers that could take place due to the nuclear weapons involved. To improve relations between Russia and the United States and to reduce tensions, President Nixon traveled to Russia, where he signed agreements with Leonid Brezhnev (the former secretary of the Soviet Union) in order to gain cultural exchanges and keep the tensions of war and nuclear weapons low.

5.2. Key people and places: President Nixon of the United States, Leonid Brezhnev of the Soviet Union. Taken place in Moscow, Russia. Conflicts: Nixon undergoing pressure back in his home country for social change and equality, and deciding what is best for the good of the country and the people.

6. Liberation movement: People's military and political struggles for independence from countries that have colonized or otherwise oppressed them (for example, people in Eastern European countries liberating themselves from Soviet communist control)

6.1. An example of liberation movement is the Warsaw Pact, which was a collective defence treaty against the Soviet Union and existing Soviet states in central and eastern Europe which existed during the Cold War. This was a conflict on ideological differences, and wanting to be free of Soviet Union's control

6.2. Key people and places: Nikita Khrushchev, the former leader during that time, taken place in Eastern Europe and Russia. Conflict: It was a long process of setting up ideas and having them put into affect.

7. Alignment Vs. Non-Alignment: Nonalignment developed in the years of the great-power relations. It was a product of the rising tensions of the Cold War and a reaction against the alignments formed at the end of the World War Two when the split between East and West converted allies into rivals and then into enemies.

7.1. The Non Alignment Movement: The main objectives of the Non-Aligned Movement were put down at the first conference that was held. These objectives included ending of imperialism and colonialism, promotion of international peace and security and disarmament, creation of a New International Economic Order, ending of racism and racial discrimination, and ending of information imperialism.

7.2. Key People and Places: As of 2012, there are over 120 members in the Alignment Movement. It was founded in 1961 in Belgrade, Serbia. It was for places such as Africa, Asia, Latin America and other regions of the world and at the height of the Cold War.