Learning Theories By: Jessica Jungbluth

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Learning Theories By: Jessica Jungbluth by Mind Map: Learning Theories By: Jessica Jungbluth

1. TPACK

1.1. Theory Principles

1.1.1. TPACK stands for Technology Pedagogy Content Knowledge and it is a framework that is created to prescribe the ideal conditions under which a Teacher would instruct students with the consideration of combing all principles; Technological, Pedagogical and Content knowledge.

1.1.2. Consists of eight different knowledge areas

1.1.2.1. Content Knowldge

1.1.2.1.1. Is the base knowledge on subject matter that a teacher must be both familiar with and able to instruct

1.1.2.2. Pedagogical knowledge

1.1.2.2.1. The basic knowledge of teaching approaches such the different learning theories and methods of assessment

1.1.2.3. Technology Knowledge

1.1.2.3.1. Focuses on knowledge of integrating technologies such as computers and laptops into the classroom and further the knowledge on how to utilize these in a effective matter.

1.1.2.4. Pedagogical Content Knowledge

1.1.2.4.1. Knowledge on how to combine Pedagogy and Content effectively such as how to pesent knowledge

1.1.2.5. Technological Content Knowledge

1.1.2.5.1. Knowledge on how Teachers can utelize technology to teach subject matter,

1.1.2.6. Technological Pedagogical Knowledge

1.1.2.6.1. Refers to the affordances and constraints of technology as an enabler of different teaching approaches

1.1.2.7. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

1.1.2.7.1. The combination of all three knowledge groups that a Teachers must maintain to effectively teach her students with technology

1.1.2.8. Context

1.1.2.8.1. In the classroom, utilizing all these areas of knowledge may be further affected by Context. This could include grade level, special needs students, cultural considerations , geographic location etc..

1.2. Implications for education

1.2.1. Including Technology within the classroom is a legal obligation for Teachers according to the Minstrel Order of Alberta

1.3. Connections

1.3.1. Gizmos are a great example of how to combine content and technology effectively

1.3.2. The entire EDU210 course including all its sources and applications provides Technological knowledge for future Teachers

2. Connectivism

2.1. Theory Principles

2.1.1. Learning is the process of creating connections and developing network

2.1.2. Key Theorists: George Siemens and Stephen Downes

2.1.2.1. "Its more important to "know-where" to find things in your network then to "know-how" or "know what"" - George Simens

2.1.3. "Learning theory for the digital age'

2.1.4. "Capacity to know more, is more critical than what is currently known'

2.2. Implications for education

2.2.1. Learning and knowledge rests in the diversity of opinions

2.2.2. Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources

2.2.3. Currency, meaning accurate up to date knowledge is the intent od all connectivist learning activities

2.3. Criticisms

2.3.1. Informal vs. formal learning

2.3.2. Assement is diffuclt as there is no was to measure the capacity of learning

2.3.3. It is a new learning theory and so not much research has been done. Furthermore, it may just be an observation about how learners access information today

2.3.4. Knowledge is a 'process' not an artifact

2.4. Connections to Educational Technology

2.4.1. Any communication Tool

2.4.1.1. Some used throughout this course were; Moodle and Twitter

2.4.2. Social Media: Twitter, Facebook

2.4.3. RSS feeds and Newsreader

2.4.4. Bookmarking Apps and Search Engines

3. Behaviourism

3.1. Theory Principles

3.1.1. Learning through positive and negative reinforcement to achieve desired behaviour

3.1.2. Main proponents of this theory were J.B.Watson and I.Pavlov.

3.1.2.1. Pavlov research included feeding a dog while simultaneously ringing a bell to later analize the reaction of the dog to the same bell

3.2. Implications for education

3.2.1. Teacher Directed, Lecture and demonstrate as well as Drill and Practise learning style

3.2.1.1. 'Practise makes perfect'

3.2.2. Focus is on obseravable and measureable learning outcomes

3.2.3. Emphasis on performance and practise

3.3. Criticisms

3.3.1. Does not emphasis on Problem Solving

3.3.2. Behavior does not always represent learning

3.3.3. People and students adapt to situations

3.3.4. Argument that a person or students mind is not a "Tabula Rasa" meaning blank slate to be filled and behaviour or learning is shaped by reinforcement.

3.3.5. Activites may not intrinsically motivate

3.4. Connections to Educational Technology

3.4.1. This connects in our course throught the educational technology: Student Response Systems such as Iclickers.

3.4.2. This theory links to direct presentations such as TED Talks and YouTube tutorials and videos as the learner is passive while the teacher directs the lesson and materials.

3.4.3. "Math Blaster"

3.4.4. Computer Assisted Instruction

4. Constructivism

4.1. Theory Principles

4.1.1. Learning is building connections by actively interacting with the environment. It involves constructing one's own knowledge from one's own experiences

4.2. Implications for education

4.2.1. Teacher presents the problem and students learn through solving it

4.2.2. Project based, discovery, case-based, collaborative and active learning

4.3. Criticisms

4.3.1. It can be time consuming for both planning as well as for students in class

4.3.2. Subjective Learning

4.3.3. Requires students to be mature/ may not be appropriate for early grades

4.3.4. Impractical without prior knowledge

4.4. Connections to Educational Technology

4.4.1. Simulations such as Gizmos that allow students to learn by giving them a chance to explore, identify, deconstruct and problem solve

4.4.2. Webquests

5. Information Processing (Cognitivism)

5.1. Theory Principles

5.1.1. This was a response to the Learning theory Behaviousrism in the 1900's

5.1.2. Learning is a mental process of acquiring, remembering, and using knowledge

5.1.3. "The mind is like a computer"

5.1.4. Learning is evident by a change in knowledge which makes a change in behaviour possible

5.2. Cognitive Load Theory

5.2.1. Based upon the ideas that students learn better when it is built upon prior knowledge. Furthermore processing information can over and under load the working memory, impacting knowledge being learnt.

5.3. Implications for education

5.3.1. Learning is Teacher-centered

5.3.2. Practice for retention

5.3.3. Mneumonic devices

5.3.3.1. example: Never Eat Sour Watermelon (for North, East, South and West or SOH CAH TOA

5.3.4. Mental Maps, Advanced organizers and Chunking

5.4. Criticisms

5.4.1. Too much focus on knowledge and memorization, while little emphasis on Problem Solving

5.4.2. Ignores affective and psychomotor domain

5.4.3. Neglects Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)

5.4.3.1. Blooms Taxonomy (the base of HOTS) was created in 1956 ( revised 1990's) and is a classification system that educators can use to define and distinguish between different levels of human cognition

5.5. Connections to Educational Technology

5.5.1. Mind meister is an example of Concept Mapping and therefor utilizing the Information Processing learning theory

5.5.2. Creating an EProfile with Weebly may also apply as it encourages students to link ideas and review them.

5.5.3. Prezi (presentation tool)

5.5.4. Electronic note taking

5.5.4.1. examples: OneNote, Goodnotes, Track Changes