Therapies for Schizophrenia

AQA A2 Psychology A: Schizophrenia

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Therapies for Schizophrenia by Mind Map: Therapies for Schizophrenia

1. Prefrontal Labotamy

1.1. Widely used up until 1950s

1.2. Frontal lobe disconnected from the rest of the brain

1.3. No evidence of success

1.4. 6% death rate

2. Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT)

2.1. Proved Ineffective

2.2. Small electric currents are passed through the brain, intentionally triggering a brief seizure

2.3. Popular in the same period as PreFrontal Labotamies

3. Antipsychotic Drugs

3.1. Phenothiazine

3.2. Currently regarded as the most effective treatment for SZ

3.3. They block dopamine receptors in the brain thus containing the positive symptoms

3.4. Julien (2005) - neuroleptics allow people with SZ to live outside institutional care

3.5. Evaluation

3.5.1. Not effective against negative symptoms

3.5.2. Can take up to 6 months to work, and symptoms will return when medication is stopped - relapse is inevitable

3.5.3. Doesn't work for 30% of SZs

3.5.4. Side effects: depression, tardive dyskenesia (24% of users develop this)

3.5.5. Revolutionised the treatment of SZ

3.5.6. Allieves SZ symptoms e.g. hallucinations and delusions, with marked behavioural and cognitive improvements

3.5.7. Potential for overdose

3.5.8. Does not cure SZ alone

3.6. Success rate 70%

4. Milieu Therapy

4.1. Social skills training programme which makes use of behavioural techniques through token economy schemes

4.2. Whilst P is in institutional care they will be involved in decision making and managing wards

4.3. Evaluation

4.3.1. Too controlling

4.3.2. Effective in helping Ps achieve independent living

4.3.3. Does not generalise to real life situations

4.4. Birchwood and Spencer (1999) - social interventions are generally beneficial in increasing the individuals competence and assertiveness in social situations - however it needs to be maintained to prevent deterioration

5. CBT

5.1. Tarrier (1987) - using details interview techniques he found that SZs can often identify triggers to their symptoms and they often develop their own methods of coping with the distress of SZ

5.1.1. Use of distraction

5.1.2. Concentrating on a specific task

5.1.3. Positive self-talk

5.1.4. Relaxation Techniques

5.2. Success rate 73%

5.3. Coping Strategy Enhancement (CSE)

5.3.1. Therapist and client work together to improve the effectiveness of their own coping strategies and develop new ones

5.3.2. A specific symptom is selected for which a particular coping strategy is devised

6. Beck and Ellis

6.1. Irrational beliefs about self cause distress

6.2. Reality testing - Ps asked for evidence to support their belief - Ps are asked for more plausible explanations

6.3. Evaluation

6.3.1. Research supports that this therapy can reduce severity of symptoms

6.3.2. Does not eliminate SZ patterns of thinking

7. Family Intervention

7.1. Based on the theory of EE - aims to reduce EE in families

7.2. Developing a cooperative and trusting relationship with all members of the family group

7.3. Informing the family about the disorder and sharing of each individual's experience with SZ

7.4. Provide whole family with practical coping skills - they learn more constructive ways of interaction and communication - encouraged to focus on good rather than bad

7.5. Training to recognise signs of relapse

7.6. Evaluation

7.6.1. Overwhelming support for the effectiveness of family interventions

7.6.2. Reduces the risk of relapse

7.6.3. Improves Ps compliance with medication

7.6.4. Can be distressful for family members

7.6.5. Done over a period of sessions so takes time and commitment