Learning Theories

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Learning Theories by Mind Map: Learning Theories

1. Behaviorism

1.1. Principles

1.1.1. Focuses on observable behaviors.

1.1.2. Associating stimuli with a response, thus creating a new behavior. This behavior is strengthened through reinforcement.

1.1.3. The learner is passive, and it is teacher directed.

1.1.4. Learning is thought to be a change in the behavior of the participant/learner.

1.1.5. Pavlov: Uses classical conditioning to condition a desired response from a stimulus. Two stimuli's are used in association to create a new desired response.

1.1.5.1. Before eating a dog hears a whistle, now whenever said dog hears a whistle it starts to salivate and expects to be fed.

1.1.6. Skinner used operant conditioning.

1.1.6.1. There is positive reinforcement is when something is added and negative reinforcement is when something is taken away.

1.1.6.1.1. An example of positive reinforcement: the behavior is studying, the reinforcement is parents approval when child studies and the change to the behavior is the student studies more.

1.1.6.1.2. An example of negative reinforcement: the behavior is studying, the reinforcement is parents disapproval, and the change in behavior is the student studies more.

1.1.7. This approach believes that practice makes perfect and uses methods like drill and practice to teach students. Behaviorists also believe people are blank slates. Teachers who use this method usually do a lecture and demonstration, then practice what they have just taught.

1.2. Implications for Education

1.2.1. It assumes that students are "blank slates" not taking into consideration the backgrounds students have.

1.2.2. Focuses on using insensitives or taking away something to create a desired response. This can mean students always expect something or are used to losing something when performing the right behaviors.

1.2.3. Not all learning can be measured through behaviors, some processes cannot be monitored this way.

1.2.4. Are students really learning or just preforming certain behaviors to get a reward.

1.2.5. Students never get a chance to learn on their own and find a solution to problems/questions.

1.3. Criticisms

1.3.1. It oversimplifies the learners role and does not allow for students to learn or explore content on their own.

1.3.1.1. Students do not get the chance to problem solve.

1.3.2. The mind is not a blank slate, students comer into classrooms with varying ideas and backgrounds.

1.3.3. Learning does not require reinforcement and students should not expect a reward for doing something.

1.3.4. There is more than one way to solve problems, if students only learn to solve one way they are deprived of finding new solutions that may work better for them.

1.4. Connections to the Course

1.4.1. Can be a necessary method to teach students things like the ABC's.

1.4.2. Using YouTube videos, BrainPop, socrative, TED Talks, math blaster, and other tools like it are all examples of behaviorist methods.

1.4.3. Drill and Practice can be a useful tool teach students or yourself vocabulary or important concepts.

1.4.4. Is useful to use with a combination of other methods to teach content in a timely manner.

2. TPACK

2.1. Principles

2.1.1. TPACK stands for Technology Pedagogy Content Knowledge and is a framework. It looks at where subject knowledge, teaching knowledge and technology knowledge intersect and each part on its own. Each area or "bubble" represents the knowledge a teacher has.

2.1.1.1. Technology Knowledge (TK): Is the knowledge a teacher possesses in regards to teachnology. This can mean applications, websites, the internet, etc.

2.1.1.2. Content Knowledge (CK): Is the knowledge a teacher has in regards to course content. This can include concepts, theories, conceptual frameworks and knowledge about improving knowledge.

2.1.1.3. Pedagogical Knowledge (PK): Is the knowledge a teacher possesses on pedagogy, including how students learn, teaching approaches, methods of assessment, knowledge of different theories of learning, and your own teaching style.

2.1.1.4. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK): Is the knowledge a teacher possesses about combining their pedagogical and content knowledge together.

2.1.1.5. Technological Content Knowledge (TCK): Is the knowledge a teacher possesses about combining their technological and content knowledge together.

2.1.1.6. Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK): is the knowledge a teacher possesses about combining their technological and pedagogical knowledge together.

2.1.1.7. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK): This is the knowledge a teacher has on effectively combining technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge all together.

2.1.1.8. Context is the outer circle in which all of TPACK falls under, and shows the context in which all of this fits.

2.2. Implications for Education

2.2.1. This is important as teachers and educators TPACK influences our classrooms and how we teach.

2.2.2. It is important for all teachers to have a good grasp on every aspect of TPACK or be able to advance and learn how to effectively do it all in order to teach students.

2.2.3. It is our job as an educator to insure we are well versed in each of these areas as we are expected to utilize every aspect of TPACK as a teacher.

2.2.4. As educates we are required to teach technology and its outcomes so it is important to understand how to do so effectively.

2.2.4.1. ICT falls into this and it s expected to be taught.

2.3. Criticisms

2.3.1. Originally there were criticisms about how all of TPACk can be irrelevant without context, so the broken circle around TPACK was added to show the context in which it all falls under.

2.4. Connections to the Course

2.4.1. This has a huge connection to the course as future teachers we are expected to be well versed in all areas of TPACK to insure we are able to properly teach students the course content.

2.4.2. Technology is mandatory to be taught to students so using tools such as mind maps is integral to our success as educators.

3. Cognitivism

3.1. Principles

3.1.1. Learning is viewed as active.

3.1.2. Learning is said to be like a computer.

3.1.2.1. Information comes in, is processed, then is stored and can be recalled.

3.1.2.2. Much like a computer if information is not used it is lost.

3.1.2.3. New information is put in short term memory and if important enough is moved to long term memory.

3.1.3. Ideas and concepts are linked, helping students to connect knowledge to already existing schemas.

3.1.4. Observable behavior does not always equal learning and not all learning can be seen.

3.1.4.1. Learning is viewed as a active mental process.

3.1.4.2. Students need to acquire information, remember, recall, and use the knowledge they learn.

3.1.5. Learning is seen through a change in the students knowledge, their ability to apply it, recall, explain, and understand the information.

3.1.6. People can learn better when they can build off of existing schemas.

3.1.7. It is difficult to proccess a lot of informaion all at once.

3.1.8. Cognitive Load Theory

3.1.8.1. requires we use maximal use when learning.

3.1.8.2. we can only store so much information.

3.1.8.3. information is incorporated into our existing schemas.

3.2. Implications for Education

3.2.1. It uses things like mental maps, chunking, word maps, and mnemonic devices.

3.2.1.1. An example of mnemonic devices: for NESW is Never Eat Sour Wheat.

3.2.2. Since it is very structured it can be hard to adapt to changes and change existing schemas.

3.2.3. It uses practicing for retention.

3.2.3.1. For some students this may not be the best method.

3.2.4. This method does not focus on students learning for themselves or problem solving.

3.2.4.1. students can have a a hard time figuring things out on their own.

3.2.4.2. Not all students find mind maps and similar devices helpful in understanding knowledge.

3.3. Criticisms

3.3.1. If changes occur this can cause students and instructors to have a hard time adapting to these changes.

3.3.2. To strong a focus on memorization and knowledge.

3.3.2.1. Lacks problem solving.

3.3.2.2. Students not given opportunity to work through things themselves.

3.3.3. Neglects HOTS, ignoring affective and psychomotor domain.

3.3.3.1. does not allow for students to learn through various methods.

3.3.3.2. Students do not build off of knowledge or create new ways or ideas to build off of.

3.3.4. Since it does not really emphasize group work, team work and cooperation may not be taught and instilled as important to students.

3.4. Connections to the Course

3.4.1. Adding new information to our schemas is something that many argues is important.

3.4.1.1. adding new information into what students already know, helps to adapt new ideas into preexisting ideals.

3.4.1.2. An example could be: showing a student that a stool is like a chair even though it looks like a table. Distinguishing between two preexisting ideas but still a stool can be incorporated into the chair schema.

3.4.2. Using tools like mind maps, Pretzi, and PowePoint can all be tools used to reinforce these theories.

3.4.3. Very structured which can be good for students to help them stay on track and insure the course content is taught to students.

3.4.4. It is very individual, which is good for some projects.

3.4.5. This can be a good method to teach certain concepts in the course like grouping.

3.4.5.1. For younger students especially this can be good to incorporate learning colors, animals, etc.

4. Constructivism

4.1. Principles

4.1.1. This knowledge is learned and understood from personal experiences and interactions in the outside world.

4.1.1.1. Learners take on new information based on their values, ideals, religion, and background.

4.1.2. Learns are active and teachers are there to act as a facilitator.

4.1.2.1. Students learn to problem solve, figure out knowledge, and come up with their own incites.

4.1.2.2. Teachers help to guide and provide feedback to students when necessary.

4.1.2.3. Students take charge of their learning and get to manipulate things for themselves.

4.1.3. Vygotsky

4.1.3.1. introduced social constructivism: where social interaction with others is viewed as positive, helping the learner put meaning to the information they find/learn.

4.1.3.2. Talked about the Zone of Proximal Development, which is what you know/can do without help, what you can do with help from others, and what you are unable to do.

4.1.4. It is problem based learning with projects being frequently used.

4.1.5. Learning is collaborative, case-based, discovery, and active.

4.1.5.1. Seymour Papert: thought learning was most effective when students create real life applications. People should learn through making and taught lego robotics, putting an emphasis on what the learner can do and in turn learn.

4.1.6. Students are not expected to come up with brand new ideas but instead are taught how to improve upon these ideas and how they work.

4.2. Implications for Education

4.2.1. Teachers take a back seat allowing for students to take charge of their learning.

4.2.2. Can be very time consuming and therefore may not be able to be used as frequently as teachers may like.

4.2.3. Many tools can be used to help facilitate and guide students to understand and improve upon knowledge they already have.

4.2.4. Students discover things themselves and have the chance to take charge of their learning.

4.2.4.1. This can be good as students don't just memorize information but also understand it.

4.3. Criticisms

4.3.1. It is very time consuming and everyone needs to go at their own pace so some students may finish earlier than others.

4.3.2. It can be very subjective and has hardly any evidence to back up the theory.

4.3.3. The desired outcomes may not be achieved and teachers need to be very flexible when planning these types of activities.

4.3.3.1. It can also be difficult to access.

4.3.3.2. If students lack prior knowledge it can be hard or impossible to complete the task.

4.3.4. These activities require a mature learner and this can be a problem with students that are not ready for these activities.

4.4. Connections to the Course

4.4.1. Inclusive and student paced learning can fall under this domain.

4.4.2. Gizmos: simulations used to teach and allow for students to learn through manipulating simulations on their own.

4.4.2.1. Great to have students create and understand the course content through learning on their own.

4.4.2.2. They are easy to use and have specific grades, classes, and course content that teachers can have access to.

4.4.3. Blooms Taxonomy (HOTS): activities that follow Blooms taxonomy reaching all levels are deemed to be great resources as they require higher order thinking skills. They focus on remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating.

4.4.4. Webquests: are student paced quests that get students to discover, find, and understand knowledge on the web son they can build up useful resources for the future.

5. Connectivism

5.1. Principles

5.1.1. Learning is done through creating connections and developing a network.

5.1.1.1. Finding resources and finding others who know about certain knowledge sets and using their information.

5.1.1.2. One cannot possibly learn everything but through contacts and sources tons of information can be found on the subjects you are looking for.

5.1.2. This theory is based on the digital age.

5.1.3. It is an effective way for people to build their networks and stay up to date with ever changing knowledge/advancements.

5.1.3.1. Through this method it is important for learners to understand and differentiate between credible resources.

5.1.3.2. Information continues to stay up to date as within an individuals network they are constantly improving and connecting with others, sharing the knowledge they accumulate.

5.1.4. Downes: believed that knowledge is formed through various connections and having access to as many different resources or experts on certain knowledge.

5.1.5. Siemens: believed in keeping various, accurate, up to date, connections to allow for accurate knowledge to be passed between people.

5.1.5.1. Thought is was more important to know were to find information over knowing how or what it is.

5.1.6. The capacity one has to know more, is more important than what they currently know.

5.1.6.1. Your network and connections is how you learn.

5.2. Implications for Education

5.2.1. This method is good to use for research and collecting resources.

5.2.2. It can be hard to measure someone knowledge as they must first search it up.

5.2.3. There is a high reliance on technology and a need to have it at all times so students can access their knowledge.

5.2.4. There is an ever-growing and vast knowledge/resource base for people to choose from.

5.2.5. Teachers must teach the difference between reliable and unreliable sources.

5.2.5.1. Sources can be hard to determine whether they are credible or not.

5.3. Criticisms

5.3.1. There must always be access to technology so students can find their knowledge.

5.3.2. Are they really learning if they have to look up all the information?

5.3.2.1. Should doctors, teachers, and other occupations rely on looking up everything?

5.3.2.2. Who is going to put out the information if everyone only rely's on others and what they say?

5.3.3. How can you tell what is credible.

5.3.4. How do access anyone if all their knowledge is from other sources?

5.3.5. Is this really a new theory or just an observation to how learners are starting to learn today.

5.3.6. There are so many sources and publications, how can you possibly keep track of who is using the newest information.

5.3.7. Websites, apps, and simulations get moved, bought out, and closed all the time, how can you be sure your resource still exists?

5.3.7.1. If it is no longer there how do you replace the information or progress you had?

5.4. Connections to the Course

5.4.1. PLN: A person learning network is important to find and create connections that can help educators find resources, information, and knowledge.

5.4.1.1. Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn are all examples of resources that can be used to expand ones PLN.

5.4.2. Bookmarking apps are good to collect and have a personal collection of resources. These allow for people to save links to websites they find important.

5.4.3. They are really any tool that helps communication occur between individuals.

5.4.4. These can be great resources to find lesson plans, expectations, and various strategies that can be benificial for the classroom.