Social Influences on Gender Roles - behavioural approach

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Social Influences on Gender Roles - behavioural approach by Mind Map: Social Influences on Gender Roles - behavioural approach

1. Parents

1.1. Operant conditioning

1.1.1. Behaviours which produce positive consequences e.g. compliments are much more likely to be repeated than those which have negative consequences e.g name calling

1.1.2. Positive reinforcement might occur when a girl is wearing a pretty dress but not when she is wearing jeans - conditions gendered behaviours Cheering for a son who tackles in football but not if he comes off the pitch crying Boys may receive negative comment when they pay with a barbie doll but positive comments when they play with a monster truck

1.2. Lytton and Romney (1991) - meta analysis - girls were ore encouraged to do household chores - boys were more likely to be physically punished - supports the claim that boys and girls receive different reinforcement for activities considered to be sex-appropriate

1.2.1. Cultural bias - all studies carried out in Westernised society

1.3. Siegal (1987) - mothers more likely to respond negatively to their sons doing feminine tasks

1.4. Fagot et al (1992) - toddlers aged 2 and 3 who had mothers who were more likely to 'police' cross-sex play had mastered the labels 'girl' and 'boy'.

2. Peers

2.1. Langlois and Downs (1980) - when boys played with girls toys they were likely to be teased and ridiculed by their male peers

2.2. Potentially more important that the influence of parents

2.3. Maccoby (1992) - the girls who is quite happy playing with cars in the sandpit at home is less likely to do that in playgroup and instead joins the girls in the Wendy house

3. The role of Observational Learning (SCLT) -Bandura and Walters (1963)

3.1. Children learn gendered behaviours in the same way they can learn aggressive behaviours

3.2. ARRM - attention to the role model, retention to remember the behaviour, reproduction in copying the behaviour, motivation to do it again in the future

3.2.1. Behaviours ar most likely to be copied if the role model has been rewarded for their behaviours

3.3. Role models

3.3.1. Parents, older siblings, peers, television characters, sporting figures and celebrities These models demonstrate different ways in which masculinity and femininity are interpreted and enacted within todays society Parents can represent strong role models - if dad is a highly masculine character who takes his son fishing, whilst mum takes her daughter shopping, parents show strong gender role segregation should, technically, have children who adopt these gender roles

3.4. Fagot et al (1992) - compared egalitarian families (parents share roles) to traditional families (child rearing done by mum while dad is at work) - interviews and observations - children in traditional families used gender labels earlier and showed more gender stereotyping

4. Television and Magazines

4.1. Most children in western cultures are avid TV watchers - Tv provides a plentiful source of sex-role models

4.1.1. Cultural bias

4.2. Morgan (1982) - the more TV a child watches, the stronger the sex-role stereotypes they hold

4.2.1. Correlational - We cannot assume that one causes the other

4.3. Boys magazines focus on sport whereas girls magazines focus on fashion and celebrities

5. Impact of Schools

5.1. Time in school is generally spent in a mixed sex environment - moral panic as girls are doing better than boys

5.2. Holloway et al (2002) - children learn and maintain gender identities within the classroom - enforcement of gender regimes

5.2.1. Majority of primary teachers are female - girls will identify better with their teachers as role models, boys may not identify and consequentially they label learning and academic achievement as for girls

5.2.2. Secondary: maths and science teachers tend to be male whereas humanities teachers tend to be female, so subjects go from being neutral to being labelled as for girls or boys

5.2.3. Boys are more likely to receive praise for the quality of their work whereas girls are more likely to be praised on presentation

6. Emphasises the nurture debate