Cross-cultural studies of gender roles

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Cross-cultural studies of gender roles by Mind Map: Cross-cultural studies of gender roles

1. Westernised society

1.1. Most gender research is carried out in Western societies

1.2. Parents and peers encourage the development of gendered behaviours

1.3. Acceptable for men to stay home whilst women works- flexibility in the way which gender is enacted - men and women have greater gender equality

1.3.1. Egalitarian

2. Hofstede (1989)

2.1. Masculine cultures - value achievement and competition - e.g. UK, US and Japan.

2.2. Feminine cultures - values interpersonal harmony and cooperation - e.g. Pakistan and India

2.3. Individualistic cultures - identity is defined through personal choices and achievements

2.4. Collectivist Cultures - membership of family, work and community groups are most important

3. Collectivist societies behave differently

3.1. Margaret Mead (1930s)

3.1.1. 3 tribes in New Guinea - interpretations of gender roles were very different to those in Westernised society Arapesh Tribe Both men and women were feminine Mundugumor Tribe Both sexes behaved masculine Tchambuli Tribe Males were feminine, females were masculine

3.1.2. Samoa Similar gender roles as Westernised society

3.1.3. Challenges the idea that gender differences are purely due to biological explanations

3.2. Chang et al (2002) - a sample of Chinese students emphasised the importance of equality in the home whereas American students emphasised importance of equity at work - perhaps this is because equality in the workplace is taken for granted in China (communism)

3.3. These findings imply that culture values and have a strong influence on gender roles

3.4. Leung and Moore (2003) - compared Australians of English and Chinese origin - English males and females showed more masculine traits - Chinese males an females showed more feminine traits

3.4.1. Cultural differences may override gender differences - males and females of the same culture show more similar characteristics than males of different cultures.

3.5. Oversimplified

4. Gender roles are the same across all cultures

4.1. Whiting and Edwards (1975) - gender roles are similar across a range of cultures - 11 non-western societies, girls were encouraged to spend more time with their mothers and were more likely to be given domestic chores whereas boys were more likely to be assigned tasks outside the house - the behavioural differences are a result of the tasks they are given

4.1.1. Supports the nature side of the debate by disagreeing with the influence of culture/nurture

4.2. Tager and Good (2005) - less conformity to traditional ideas about gender in Italy

4.2.1. Demonstrates that we should not generalise when considering cultural differences

5. IDA

5.1. Highlights the importance of cultural factors but no others - REDUCTIONIST

5.2. Free will: behaviour of individuals within the cultures is not viewed as being predetermined