Pathophysiology: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD); Damaged lining of coronary arteries leading to bu...

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Pathophysiology: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD); Damaged lining of coronary arteries leading to build up of lipids and WBCs - forms plaques; Narrows lumen of arteries, can lead to thrombus or emboli by Mind Map: Pathophysiology: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD); Damaged lining of coronary arteries leading to build up of lipids and WBCs - forms plaques; Narrows lumen of arteries, can lead to thrombus or emboli

1. Assessment: Often have HTN, Elevated Lipids/cholesterol, may have elevated glucose. May have S/S of TIAs associated with stress/exertion, arterial bruits

2. Potential Complications: Unstable angina/MI; Stroke or TIA

3. Priorities of Care: Monitor for complications; stabilize and reduce plaques; Reduce risk factors - educate on diet, meds, & exercise; Address HTN and/or diabetes if present

4. Medications: Atovstatin calcium (Lipitor) "statins"

5. Nursing Interventions: Monitor VS and labs; Assess for S/S of complications; Administer medications; Referrals; Patient Teaching

6. Patient Teaching: Disease process; Diet - reduced fat & cholesterol; exercise - regular; medications; Smoking cessation; Control HTN & diabetes

7. Labs: HTN > 140/90; LDL > 160; HDL < 40; total cholesterol > 240; triglycerides > 200; glucose > 200

8. Diagnostic Procedures: Coronary artery calcium scoring; possible angiography to look for blockage if symptomatic

9. What to look for: Unstable angina - chest pain at rest; MI: angina, diaphoresis, SOB, neck, jaw, or back pain, etc.; Stroke or TIA: neurological changes - dizziness, weakness or numbness on one side of body, dysphasia, drooping on one side of face

10. Important Points: Contraindicated w/liver disease, monitor liver enzymes, no grapefruit products

11. Risk factors: Atheroscelrosis, HTN, Smoking, Obesity/sedentary, Hyperlipidemia, Diabetes, Family Hx, Post-menopausal

12. Action of meds: Slows production of cholesterol in the liver; Side Effects of medication: increased cataract risk, HA, abdominal pain, diarrhea, SEVERE: rhabdomyolysis & liver failure

13. Collaborative Care: Dietician; Diabetic Educator if indicated

14. Discharge Planning: F/U with PCP; Cardiology referral; Smoking cessation support if needed; Other Support groups; Assess $$$ to afford meds