Warrantless Searches

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Warrantless Searches by Mind Map: Warrantless Searches

1. Exigent Circumstances

1.1. Three Main Types

1.1.1. Hot Pursuit

1.1.2. Evanescent Evidence

1.1.3. Emergency Aid

2. Search Incident to Arrest

2.1. Any Arrest Is Sufficient

2.1.1. United States v. Robinson, 414 U.S. 218 (1973)

2.1.2. Whren v. United States, 517 U.S. 806 (1996)

2.2. Scope of Search Incident to Arrest

2.2.1. Vale v. Louisiana, 399 U.S. 30 (1970)

2.2.2. Chimel v. California, 395 U.S. 752 (1969)

2.2.3. Arizona v. Gant, 556 U.S. 332 (2009)

2.2.3.1. If an arrestee has been secured an officer may search an automobile incident to an arrest only when the officer believes the automobile contains evidence related to the crime for which the arrest was made.

2.2.3.2. If an arrestee is unsecured the search of the automobile incident to arrest does not require belief in the existence of evidence related to the crime for which the arrest was made, but is limited in scope to the passenger compartment of the vehicle pursuant to a Terry frisk analysis.

3. Consent

3.1. Consent must be voluntary and intelligent

3.1.1. Schneckloth v. Bustamonte, 412 U.S. 218 (1973)

3.2. Scope

3.3. Apparent Authority

3.3.1. Georgia v. Randolph, 547 U.S. 103 (2006)

3.4. Objecting Co-Tenant

4. Automobile

4.1. What Qualifies as an Automobile

4.1.1. California v. Carney, 471 U.S. 386 (1985)

4.2. Automobile Passenger Belongings

4.2.1. Wyoming v. Houghton, 526 U.S. 295 (1999)

5. Plain View

5.1. Requirements For Seizure of an Item in Plain View

5.1.1. Lawful Access to Place Where Item Can be Seen, Smelt, or Heard

5.1.2. Lawful Access to Item Itself

5.1.3. Criminality of Item Must be Readily Apparent

6. Inventory

6.1. Stationhouse Searches

6.2. Automobile Impoundment Searches

6.3. Requirements for All Inventory Searches

6.3.1. Regulation governing inventory searches must be reasonable in the scope it allows

6.3.2. The actual search must be conducted pursuant to the regulations

6.3.3. The officer must have an actual, subjective, good faith intent in complying with the purposes of the inventory search

7. Special Needs or Balancing Approach

7.1. Administrative Searches

7.1.1. City of Los Angeles v. Patel, ___ U.S. ___, 135 S. Ct. 2443 (2015)

7.2. Search of School Children by School Officials

7.2.1. Requirements

7.2.1.1. Search must be reasonable at its inception

7.2.1.2. Search must not be intrusive

7.2.1.2.1. Age of student searched

7.2.1.2.2. Sex of student searched

7.2.1.2.3. Nature of infraction

7.3. Drug Testing of Employees

7.3.1. Of railroad employees

7.3.2. Of Customs Agents

7.3.3. Of Schoolchildren Engaged in Extracurricular Activities

7.4. Sobriety Checkpoints

7.5. Parolee Searches

7.5.1. Samson v. California, 547 U.S. 843 (2006)

8. Terry Stop and Frisk

8.1. Automobile Stops

8.2. Terry Stop

8.2.1. Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1 (1968)

8.2.2. Florida v. J.L., 529 U.S. 266 (200)

8.3. Terry Frisk of a Person

8.4. Terry Frisk of an Automobile