Treatment of Psych Disorders

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Treatment of Psych Disorders by Mind Map: Treatment of Psych Disorders

1. Eclectic Therapies

1.1. combining several fields to help a patient

2. Group Therapy

2.1. Family Therapy

2.1.1. meeting with the whole family is helpful in revealing the patterns of interaction between family members and altering the behavior of the whole family rather than just one member

2.2. Self-Help Groups

2.2.1. less expensive for the clients and offers them the insight and feedback of their peers in addition to that of the therapist

2.2.2. Alcoholics Anonymous

3. Somatic Therapies

3.1. Psychopharmacology (chemotherapy)

3.1.1. "drug therapy"

3.1.2. Cons: hard to assign drugs when the patient can't express themselves coherently

3.1.3. Schizophrenia Treatments antipsychotics (Thorazine or Haldol) block receptor sites for dopamine possible side effect: tardive dyskinesia (chronic muscle spasms)

3.1.4. Unipolar Depression Treatments 3 most popular: tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor drugs

3.1.5. Manic Phase of Bipolar Treatments Lithium

3.1.6. Anxiety Treatments 2 Main: barbiturates (Miltown) and benzodiazepines (Xanax and Valium)

3.2. Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

3.2.1. Bilateral: current through both hemispheres more effective, but more negative side effects

3.2.2. Unilateral: One Hemisphere

3.3. Psychosugery

3.3.1. rarest and most intrusive

3.3.2. purposeful destruction of part of the brain to alter a person's behavior

3.3.3. Early Version: prefrontal lobotomy

4. Cognitive Behavioral Therapies

4.1. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)

4.1.1. Albert Ellis

4.1.2. look to expose and confront the dysfunctional thoughts of their clients. Goal: to show the client that not only is their failure an unlikely occurrence but that, even if it did happen, it wouldn't be that big of a deal

4.1.3. Focuses on what clients think and what they physically do

5. Cognitive Therapies

5.1. Attribution Style

5.1.1. involve thinking that a person is a failure as external, specific and temporary

5.2. Cognitive Therapy

5.2.1. Aaron Beck

5.2.2. get the clients to engage in pursuits that will bring them success, in hopes to alleviate the depression while also identifying and channeling the irrational ideas that causes their unhappiness.

5.2.3. Cognitive Triad 1) people's belief about themselves, 2) their worlds, 3) their futures

6. Behavioral Therapies

6.1. Methods

6.1.1. Counterconditioning Mary Cover Kones an unpleasant conditioned response is replaced with a pleasant one

6.1.2. Systematic Desensitization (think: the feather phobia video) Joseph Wolpe teaching a client to replace the feelings of anxiety with relaxation. get the client to relax Anxiety Hierarchy rank-ordered list of what the client fears, starting with the least frightening and ending with the most frightening (ie:seeing a pic of a spider --> having one crawl on your hand in vivo desensitization covert desensitization

6.1.3. Flooding having the client address the most frightening scenario first. produces tremendous anxiety. hope that the fear becomes extinguished

6.1.4. Modeling watching someone else deal with your phobia, and you see them not freak out

6.1.5. Aversive Conditioning pairing a habit a person wishes to break, with an unpleasant stimulus

6.1.6. Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner works within a Token economy

7. Humanistic Therapies

7.1. Self-Actualize

7.1.1. to reach one's highest potential, powerful motivational goal

7.2. Free Will

7.2.1. THEY BELIEVE THIS people are capable of controlling their own desires

7.3. Determinism

7.3.1. Opposite of free will: people have no inflicne over what happens to them and that their choices are predetermined by forces outside of their control


7.4.1. Carl Rogers Client-Centered Therapy (Person-Centered Therapy) The therapists wouldn't tell their clients what to do, but instead seek to help the clients choose a course of action for themselves. Unconditional Postiive Regard

7.5. Non-Directive

7.5.1. clients seeking their own course of action, the therapists day very little, encourage the clients to talk a lot.

7.5.2. Active Listening

7.6. Gestalt Therapy

7.6.1. Developed by Fritz Perls

7.6.2. Exploring small emotions and importance of body position to be able to integrate all of their actions, feelings, and thoughts into a harmonious whole.

7.7. Existential Therapies

7.7.1. focus on helping clients achieve a subjectively meaningful perception of their lives.

7.7.2. see client's difficulties as caused by the clients having lost or failed to develop a sense of their lives' purpose.

7.7.3. look to formulate a vision for their client of their lives as a worthwhile

8. Psychoanalytic Therapy


8.1.1. Sigmund Freud

8.2. Believe that the cause is unconscious conflicts

8.3. Symptom Substitution

8.3.1. after a person is successfully treated for one psychological disorder, that person beings to experience a new psychological problem

8.4. Methods

8.4.1. Hypnosis when in this state, psychoanalysts believe that people are less likely to repress troubling thoughts

8.4.2. Free Associate saying whatever comes to mind without thinking. no censoring our thought

8.4.3. Dream Analysis asking patients to describe their dreams Manifest Content the patients reports of the dream Latent hidden content

8.4.4. Resistance Patients disagreeing with the therapist's interpretations

8.4.5. all heavily rely on the interpretations of the therapists

8.5. Transference

8.5.1. in the course of therapy, patients being to have strong feelings toward their therapists. (In love, parental figures, hatred)

8.5.2. belief that patients often redirect strong emotions felt toward people with whom they have have troubling relationships onto their therapists

8.6. Psychodynamic Theorists

8.6.1. generally still see the unconscious as an important element in understanding a person's difficulties, they will be more likely to use a variety of techniques associated with other perspectives

9. Earlier Beliefs

9.1. Trephining

9.1.1. making holes in the brain that were supposed to let the harmful spirits escape the diseased person

9.2. Middle Ages thought that mental illnesses were demons within the person

9.3. Pinel and Dix

9.3.1. Brought around kinder treatment of the mentally ill

9.4. Deinstitutionalization

9.4.1. he process of replacing long-stay psychiatric hospitals with less isolated community mental health services for those diagnosed with a mental disorder or developmental disability

10. Prevention Methods

10.1. Primary Prevention

10.1.1. efforts attempt to reduce the incidence of societal problems, such a joblessness or homelessness, that can give rise to mental health issues.

10.2. Secondary Prevention

10.2.1. involves working with people at-risk for developing specific problems

10.3. Tertiary Prevention

10.3.1. efforts aim to keep people's mental health issues from becoming more severe

11. Kinds of Therapists

11.1. Psychiatrists

11.1.1. medical doctors, only ones allowed to prescribe medication in most US states.

11.1.2. often favor a biomedical model of mental illness and are often less extensively trained in psychotherapy

11.2. Clinical psychologists

11.2.1. PhDs, for part of their training they are overseen by a more experienced professional

11.3. Counseling Therapists

11.3.1. some kind of graduate degree. trained duing an internship during which they are overseen by a more experienced professional.

11.3.2. found in schools, and marriage and family therapists

11.4. Psychoanalysts

11.4.1. specifically trained in Freudian methods, may or may not have medical degrees.