Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) - 14 Student classifications, by Matthew Locker.

A Mind map to describe the 14 categories of Learning Disability with related interventions or accommodations and technology that could be used at school or home to support learning.

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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) - 14 Student classifications, by Matthew Locker. by Mind Map: Individuals with Disabilities  Education Act (IDEA) - 14 Student classifications, by Matthew Locker.

1. Autism

1.1. …means a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engaging in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. The term autism does not apply if the child’s educational performance is adversely affected primarily because the child has an emotional disturbance, as defined in #5 below. A child who shows the characteristics of autism after age 3 could be diagnosed as having autism if the criteria above are satisfied.

1.1.1. Some common accomodations for children with Autism or Asperger`s syndrom are:

1.1.1.1. Have a set routine for the school day. For younger students, provide a picture schedule. The schedule can be posted for all students to use or a small, desktop version can be created. Some students may do well if tasks are held with Velcro so they can remove them as the task is completed.

1.1.1.1.1. Provide adequate notice for any change of schedule, except in cases of emergency.

1.1.1.1.2. Provide lessons by giving a short summary of what will be covered, a detailed explanation and finish with a summary of the lesson.

1.1.1.1.3. Provide an area of the classroom the student can retreat to in times of high stimulation or when overwhelmed.

1.1.1.1.4. Identify distractions and take steps to minimize them. For example, if a child is sitting close to the heater, is it making noise that is distracting to the student.

1.1.1.1.5. Give directions that are clear and concise, using literal language.

1.1.1.1.6. Establish firm expectations for completing school work and homework. Children with ASD sometimes have a hard time completing assignments when there is no interest. Explain expectations and consequences for not completing the work.

1.1.1.1.7. Work with the special education teacher in developing lessons when necessary.

1.1.1.1.8. Break assignments into small sections or provide specific steps for completing a large assignment.

1.1.1.1.9. Incorporate pictures, images and other visual aids when teaching vocabulary words, scientific subjects and abstract concepts.

1.1.1.1.10. Allow extra time for completing tests and in school assignments.

1.1.1.1.11. Work with counselors to create a crisis plan for emotional outbursts or meltdowns.

1.1.1.1.12. Consider sensory sensitivities when determining where the child’s desk should be placed.

1.1.1.1.13. Use tennis balls on the bottom of the chairs and desks to minimize noise when students get up from their seats.

1.1.1.1.14. Minimize what is hung on the wall of the classroom to avoid the student being overwhelmed. For example, keep a calendar, classroom rules and expectations, daily schedule.

1.1.1.1.15. Allow student to enter the classroom a few minutes before other students and to leave a few minutes early to avoid the chaos of the hallway in between classes.

1.1.1.1.16. Avoid the use of figurative speech and idioms. Use concrete terms to aid in children with ASD understanding.

1.1.1.1.17. Provide written notes or have another student use carbon paper to share notes if handwriting is a problem.

1.1.1.1.18. Incorporate a student’s special interest in lessons. For example, if a student is fascinated with trains, use examples of trains in math and other lessons.

1.1.1.1.19. Allow the student to take notes on a laptop.

1.1.1.1.20. Use oral testing or other alternative testing methods for those with difficulty taking written tests.

1.1.1.1.21. Reduce homework assignments, for example, have student complete every other question or provide alternate ways for the student to reinforce learning.

1.1.1.1.22. Be aware of sounds and noise within the classroom. Some children with sound sensitivities may find clapping, yelling out of turn and high frequency sounds extremely distracting and in some cases, painful.

1.1.2. please follow the link to find technology to use with this type of student.

1.1.3. Here is another link for technology to help with this type of student

1.1.4. For three case studies of children with Autism, please follow the link.

2. Deaf-blindness

2.1. …means concomitant [simultaneous] hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.

2.1.1. Some accommodations that can be made for students with this disability are:

2.1.1.1. Instruction and Assignments:

2.1.1.1.1. Decrease length, reduce amount, or complete a task analysis of assignments.

2.1.1.1.2. Use alternative format for assignments (tape recorder, typewriter, computer, etc.).

2.1.1.1.3. Emphasize major points and provide frequent comprehension checks.

2.1.1.1.4. Allow for oral response.

2.1.1.1.5. Present new information in a consistent fashion.

2.1.1.1.6. Provide experience-based instruction.

2.1.1.1.7. Provide hands-on experiences and use manipulatives.

2.1.1.1.8. Provide extra time for completing activities and assignments.

2.1.1.1.9. Provide additional time to locate and attend to referent.

2.1.1.1.10. Provide one-on-one instructional support when needed.

2.1.1.1.11. Provide intervener, interpreter, and interpreter-tutor if necessary.

2.1.1.1.12. Develop a communication foundation and adapt communication form (finger spelling, alternative signs, tactual signs, reduced sign area, coactive signing).

2.1.1.1.13. Present communication form in appropriate field of vision & at appropriate distance.

2.1.1.1.14. Provide specific visual adaptations to instructional environment.

2.1.1.1.15. Provide specific auditory adaptations to instructional environment..

2.1.1.1.16. Follow the child’s lead.

2.1.1.1.17. Establish balanced interactions (turn taking).

2.1.1.1.18. Use age appropriate materials and activities.

2.1.1.2. Materials and Environment: Print and material size (large for poor acuity/ normal for field loss) Braille High contrast between object and it's background Use concrete objects Appropriate lighting Keep hallways and travel routes clear of obstacles Clearly define expectations and limitations Provide frequent breaks Seat student near teacher and/or activity Environment needs to be motivating as well as safe

2.1.1.3. Materials and Environment:

2.1.1.3.1. Print and material size (large for poor acuity/ normal for field loss)

2.1.1.3.2. Braille

2.1.1.3.3. High contrast between object and it's background

2.1.1.3.4. Use concrete objects

2.1.1.3.5. Appropriate lighting

2.1.1.3.6. Keep hallways and travel routes clear of obstacles

2.1.1.3.7. Clearly define expectations and limitations

2.1.1.3.8. Provide frequent breaks

2.1.1.3.9. Seat student near teacher and/or activity

2.1.1.3.10. Environment needs to be motivating as well as safe

2.1.1.4. Manage Behavior:

2.1.1.4.1. Provide supervision regarding use/maintenance of assistive listening devices and optical aids

2.1.1.4.2. Prepare child prior to transition to new activity (give clear ending to the current activity, giving a symbol/cue representing the upcoming event).

2.1.1.4.3. Reduce the effects of anxiety related to Deaf-blindness by: limiting the number of people, providing a predictable environment, reducing performance demands, developing instruction around preferred activities, and providing choices in activities.

2.1.2. Some examples of assistive technology to use with students with this disability are

2.1.2.1. Glasses / Low vision devices (magnifiers, monoculars, CCTV, etc.)

2.1.2.2. Alerting devices (vibrating alarms, watches, etc.)

2.1.2.3. Captioning (TV and Video)

2.1.2.4. TDD, telebraille or relay services for making phone calls

2.1.2.5. Calendar system (boxes, boards and posters - using objects, pictures or symbols)

2.1.2.6. Easel, book stands

2.1.2.7. Calculators

2.1.2.8. Light box

2.1.2.9. Augmentative Communication devices

2.1.2.10. Computer aided real time (CART)

2.1.2.11. Lamps or spotlights on interpreter or materials

2.1.2.12. Intervener, interpreter or interpreter-tutor

2.1.2.13. Hearing aids / FM Systems (Auditory Trainers)

3. Deafness

3.1. …means a hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

3.1.1. Typical accommodations for this disability are:

3.1.1.1. Sign language interpreter.

3.1.1.1.1. Note taker.

3.1.1.1.2. Tape recorder.

3.1.1.1.3. FM system where the instructor uses a lapel microphone.

3.1.1.1.4. Seating near the instructor.

3.1.1.1.5. Visual aids when possible.

3.1.1.1.6. Supplementation of lectures with written outlines or notes on the board.

3.1.1.1.7. Closed-captioning on all multimedia displays. (This may be s legal requirement.)

3.1.1.2. Suggestions to facilitate classroom participation of students who are deaf or hard of hearing

3.1.1.2.1. Avoid turning your back to the student when speaking.

3.1.1.2.2. Try to avoid standing with your back to a window or other light source.

3.1.1.2.3. Repeat questions or comments made by other persons in the room.

3.1.1.2.4. Keep the areas of the mouth visible to the student.

3.1.1.2.5. Speak naturally and clearly but avoid exaggerated lip movements or volume.

3.1.1.2.6. Use facial expressions, gestures, and other "body language" to help convey your message.

3.1.2. Please follow this link for isuggestions about what technology to use for students with this disability

4. Developmental delay

4.1. …for children from birth to age three (under IDEA Part C) and children from ages three through nine (under IDEA Part B), the term developmental delay, as defined by each State, means a delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication; social or emotional development; or adaptive [behavioral] development.

4.1.1. Accommodations for Physical development delay

4.1.1.1. Plan physical activities for times when the student has the most energy.

4.1.1.2. Provide simple, fun obstacle courses that the student is capable of completing.

4.1.1.3. Provide daily opportunities and activities for children to use handheld tools and objects.

4.1.1.4. Use songs with finger plays to develop fine motor skills.

4.1.1.5. Use materials such as a non-slip mat under drawing paper, thick crayons, and thick handled paint brushes that are easy to grasp.

4.1.1.6. Incorporate singing and dancing into many activities.

4.1.1.7. Place objects in student’s hand to hold and feel.

4.1.1.8. Let students practice swinging and hitting.

4.1.1.9. When eating, let student make a mess to practice the motions of feeding and cleaning up.

4.1.1.10. Give students blocks, clay, paper, pencils, crayons, safety scissors, play dough, and manipulatives to use.

4.1.1.11. Plan daily physical activities, and take students outside to run, climb and jump around.

4.1.1.12. Have students practice buttoning and unbuttoning, zipping clothes, and opening and closing a door.

4.1.1.13. Use activities that involve cutting, pasting, drawing and writing.

4.1.1.14. Model and use activities with drawing and writing tools.

4.1.1.15. Use child-size tables and chairs in the classroom.

4.1.1.16. Have a schedule for active and quiet times.

4.1.1.17. Model and talk about healthy eating habits with students.

4.1.1.18. Provide nutritious snacks and meals.

4.1.1.19. Make parents aware of health concerns that could affect a child’s development (changes in growth, hearing, vision).

4.1.1.20. Provide parents with information about health, medical, and dental resources.

4.1.1.21. Use visual discrimination games such as “I spy”.

4.1.1.22. Take “listening walks.”

4.1.1.23. https://www.understood.org/en/tools/tech-finder/find-tech?keyword=physical%20developmental%20delay#search-by

4.1.2. Accommodations for delays in Cognitive development

4.1.2.1. Use the student’s preferences and interests to build lessons (get input from parents).

4.1.2.2. Allow student time to complete tasks and practice skills at own pace.

4.1.2.3. Acknowledge level of achievement by being specific.

4.1.2.4. Be specific when giving praise and feedback.

4.1.2.5. Break down tasks into smaller steps.

4.1.2.6. Demonstrate steps, and then have student repeat the steps, one at a time.

4.1.2.7. Be as concrete as possible.

4.1.2.8. Demonstrate what you mean rather than giving directions verbally.

4.1.2.9. Show a picture when presenting new information verbally.

4.1.2.10. Provide hands-on materials and experiences.

4.1.2.11. Share information about how things work.

4.1.2.12. Pair student with a buddy who can assist with keeping the student on track.

4.1.2.13. Be consistent with classroom routines.

4.1.2.14. Set a routine so student knows what to expect.

4.1.2.15. Provide a visual schedule of activities that can be understood by the student (using photos, icons).

4.1.2.16. Use a visual timer so student knows when an activity will be over and they can transition to the next task.

4.1.2.17. Use age appropriate materials.

4.1.2.18. Use short and simple sentences to ensure understanding.

4.1.2.19. Repeat instructions or directions frequently.

4.1.2.20. Ask student if further clarification is necessary.

4.1.2.21. Keep distractions and transitions to a minimum.

4.1.2.22. Teach specific skills whenever necessary.

4.1.2.23. Provide an encouraging and supportive learning environment.

4.1.2.24. Do not overwhelm a student with multiple or complex instructions.

4.1.2.25. Speak more slowly and leave pauses for student to process your words.

4.1.2.26. Speak directly to the student.

4.1.2.27. Speak in clear short sentences.

4.1.2.28. Ask one question at a time and provide adequate time for student to reply.

4.1.3. Accommodations for delays in Communication development

4.1.3.1. Use large clear pictures to reinforce what you are saying.

4.1.3.2. Speak slowly and deliberately.

4.1.3.3. Paraphrase back what the student has said.

4.1.3.4. Clarify types of communication methods the student may use.

4.1.3.5. Identify and establish functional communication systems for students who are non-verbal.

4.1.3.6. Reinforce communication attempts (e.g. their gestures, partial verbalizations) when the student is non-verbal or emerging verbal.

4.1.3.7. Label areas in the room with words and pictures.

4.1.3.8. Use sequencing cards to teach order of events.

4.1.3.9. Provide puppets/pictures as props when using finger plays and songs.

4.1.3.10. Develop a procedure for the student to ask for help.

4.1.3.11. Speak directly to the student.

4.1.3.12. Be a good speech model.

4.1.3.13. Have easy and good interactive communication in classroom.

4.1.3.14. Consult a speech language pathologist concerning your class.

4.1.3.15. Be aware that students may require another form of communication.

4.1.3.16. Encourage participation in classroom activities and discussions.

4.1.3.17. Model acceptance and understanding in classroom.

4.1.3.18. Provide assistance and positive reinforcement as the student shows the ability to do something with increased independence.

4.1.3.19. Use gestures that support understanding.

4.1.3.20. Model correct speech patterns and avoid correcting speech difficulties.

4.1.3.21. Be patient when student is speaking, since rushing may result in frustration.

4.1.3.22. Focus on interactive communication.

4.1.3.23. Use active listening.

4.1.3.24. Incorporates the student’s interests into speech.

4.1.3.25. Use storybook sharing in which a story is read to student and responses are elicited (praise is given for appropriate comments about the content).

4.1.4. Please follow this link for technology ideas to help with some types of developmental delay

5. Emotional disturbance

5.1. …means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance: (a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. The term includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance.

5.1.1. Some accommodations that can be made are:

5.1.1.1. Break down assignments into smaller ones. As students finish each mini-assignment, build in reinforcement for task completion. Wait to distribute the next assignment until students have been successful with the current one.

5.1.1.2. Reduce the number of practice items that a student must complete, once the student has demonstrated mastery.

5.1.1.3. Follow low-interest activities with high interest activities so that students get breaks from difficult or less interesting activities from time to time.

5.1.1.4. Plan short review lessons or readiness activities to help orient the student to a particular learning task.

5.1.1.5. Extend the amount of time that a student is given to complete a particular task.

5.1.2. Please follow this link for technology to use with this type of students

5.1.3. For a comprehensive list of case studies of middle school students with emotional and behavioural difficulties, please follow the link

6. Hearing impairment

6.1. …means an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of “deafness.”

6.1.1. The teacher should request and encourage student input on how to best accommodate the student's learning needs, however some typical accommodations for this disability are:

6.1.1.1. Keep the classroom door closed to minimize noise in the hallway from interfering with learning.

6.1.1.1.1. Teacher avoids standing in front of a window so that his/her face can be seen without glare from the sun or outside distractions.

6.1.1.1.2. All new directions, concepts and information should be presented from the front of the room, not when the teacher is moving between desks or during noisy classroom transition times.

6.1.1.1.3. Adhere to a classroom routine; if a student misses something they will be better able to predict what they should be doing or what will happen next.

6.1.1.1.4. Maintain quiet during lecture times and classroom discussion when students will be expected to understand information

6.1.1.1.5. During classroom discussions ask students to speak one at a time.

6.1.1.1.6. Summarize key points made by students’ answers or comments during class discussion.

6.1.1.1.7. Write all assignments on the board, including textbook page numbers the class will be turning to in each lesson period.

6.1.1.1.8. If a visual is used, like a map, graph or a projected image, allow students a chance to look at the visual, describe what they are seeing, and provide short silences so they can process the meaning of both the visual and what is being said.

6.1.1.2. Classroom Adaptations to Help Children with Hearing Loss Listen Better

6.1.1.2.1. Assign children to classrooms that have acceptable acoustics. Open-plan schools are not appropriate settings for children with hearing loss who are auditory learners. Noisy ventilation system, rooms next to noisy gym or band areas and classrooms that lack acoustic ceiling tile and/or carpeting are likely to add to the child’s listening and learning challenges. Felt pads or tennis balls on the legs of the chairs/desks will cut down on noise made by students.

6.1.1.2.2. Make sure the child’s hearing aids or cochlear implants are functioning each day. A school staff member should be responsible for checking the devices daily and/or for working with the student as they gain responsibility for performing daily checks of their own devices.

6.1.1.2.3. Students who are unable to repeat 90% or more of words in background noise should be considered for personal FM devices that work with their own hearing aids or cochlear implants. The teacher wears a microphone transmitter and the child is able to hear the teacher’s voice through the FM device as though s/he was speaking only a few inches from the student’s ears. If the microphone is passed around during classroom discussions and small group learning then the child will be able to hear other student’s voices too.

6.1.1.2.4. Use FM devices to allow the child to be able to hear school assemblies and daily announcements. Provide a way to use FM with Smart Boards, computers and videos.

6.1.1.2.5. Seat the student in the second row and a little off to one side of the classroom. If he or she has a better hearing ear, that ear should be facing the teacher. Recognize that the student may need to turn to watch other students as they speak or to gather visual cues if they miss directions.

6.1.1.2.6. The student and teacher can work out a signal that can be used when the student is having a hard time understanding. For example, cupping a hand behind one ear, putting a finger on the side of the nose or hanging a hand over the front of the desk and wiggling the fingers could all be confidential signals between the student and the teacher. With this reminder, the teacher can control the noise, distance or summarize what has recently been presented.

6.1.1.2.7. Encourage the student to close the classroom door if it is open to interfering noise.

6.1.1.2.8. Some children benefit from use of a ‘buddy system’ in which the students asks another student to repeat directions or help them get started on seat work. This should not interfere with the student taking responsibility for letting the teacher know that they didn’t understand. Becoming an independent communicator is an important lifelong skill.

6.1.1.3. Classroom Adaptations to Help Children with Hearing Loss with Visual Learning or Visual Cues

6.1.1.3.1. Allow the child to move to another seat, chair or place in the room that allows him or her to see better as classroom activities change.

6.1.1.3.2. Adults and children should be reminded to not speak with hands or other things in front of their mouths. Long mustaches can also interfere and should be trimmed short or shaved off.

6.1.1.3.3. Student notetakers can be used so that the student with hearing loss can focus on the instruction. Unlike children without hearing loss, listening while taking notes at the same time is often not possible.

6.1.1.3.4. All videos need to be captioned for the student to access the same information as other students.

6.1.1.3.5. Voice-to-text adaptations can be explored for students who are unable to access verbal instruction auditorilly (or via sign language or cued speech) at a rate similar to students without hearing loss.

6.1.1.3.6. Sign language interpreters, spoken language facilitators or cued speech transliterators can be used. Children must be trained to pay attention to the interpreter starting by late preschool or kindergarten.

6.1.1.4. Expectations of the Child as an Active Learner

6.1.1.4.1. Communication is a 2-way street. Everyone mishears or misunderstands communication some of the time. We are all responsible for repairing these broken communication situations. Children with hearing loss need to recognize that ‘bluffing’ is not okay when they do not understand.

6.1.1.4.2. The student can work out a signal system with teachers, community sports coaches or group leaders (e.g., Boy Scouts) to let the adults know when communication is difficult.

6.1.1.4.3. Students need to gradually learn to take responsibility for their own devices until they can check them independently every day and report any problems immediately.

6.1.1.4.4. Students should remind adults to use FM devices and let them know when noise is interfering with learning.

6.1.2. Please follow this link for isuggestions about what technology to use for students with this disability

7. Intellectual disability

7.1. …means significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. (“Intellectual Disability” is a new term in IDEA. Until October 2010, the law used the term “mental retardation.” In October 2010, Rosa’s Law was signed into law by President Obama. Rosa’s Law changed the term to be used in future to “intellectual disability.” The definition of the term itself did not change and is what has just been shown above.)

7.1.1. Typical accommodations for this disability are:

7.1.1.1. Common Accommodations

7.1.1.2. Communication

7.1.1.3. People with intellectual disabilities may employ a number of different strategies and tools. Tools may include graphic communication boards or computer-voiced systems. Feel free to ask the person how best to communicate with them…

7.1.1.4. Additional information on communication topics regarding people with intellectual disabilities

7.1.1.5. Medical

7.1.1.6. Some people with intellectual disabilities have lived sheltered lives. Others have lived in institutions. People may not have had opportunities to learn much about their bodies, reproductive systems, or their sexual rights…

7.1.1.7. Additional information on medical topics regarding people with intellectual disabilities

7.1.1.8. Independence

7.1.1.9. People with intellectual disabilities may be entirely independent, or they may have multiple community supports. Regardless of the level of support a person receives, the person should be making the decisions. Service providers should be respecting their choices…

7.1.1.10. Additional information on independence-related topics regarding people with intellectual disabilities

7.1.1.11. Transportation

7.1.1.12. Some people with intellectual disabilities rely on a network of family, friends, and services for transportation…

7.1.1.13. Additional information on transportation topics regarding people with intellectual disabilities

7.1.2. Please follow this link for ideas of technology to use to help students

8. Multiple disabilities

8.1. …means concomitant [simultaneous] impairments (such as intellectual disability-blindness, intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness.

8.1.1. Typical accommodations for this disability are:

8.1.1.1. Know the needs, play to the strengths. Each student with multiple disabilities will have his or her own set of skills, strengths, and learning needs. Learning more about each disability of the student will be helpful in addressing those learning needs. Also find out more about the student’s strengths and interests, enthusiasms, and preferences. These can be used to motivate the student and enrich the education he or she receives. Parents are a great source of this information. So is the student!

8.1.1.2. Be familiar with the student’s IEP. If you have a student with multiple disabilities in your class, chances are that he or she has an individualized education program (IEP). The IEP will spell out the educational and functional goals to be worked on. You may have been part of the team that developed the IEP. If not, it’s important to be familiar with what the student’s IEP requires. Ask for a copy. Consult with administrators and other teachers, as needed, to make sure that the supports and services listed in the IEP are provided.

8.1.1.3. Make modifications. Students with multiple disabilities often need substantial modifications and accommodations in the classroom. This will help them access the general education curriculum at a grade-appropriate level. Find out about accommodations at:

8.1.1.4. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/accommodations/

8.1.1.5. Let the IEP team know what program supports or modifications you need. The student’s IEP can include program modifications and supports for school personnel. Read more about this at:

8.1.1.6. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/modifications-personnel/

8.1.1.7. Allow partial participation, as necessary. Partial participation means that students with multiple disabilities aren’t excluded from activities because they might not be able to complete a task fully or independently. Modifications can be made to the task itself or to how students participate.

8.1.1.8. Consider assistive technology (AT). AT is appropriate, even essential, for many students with multiple disabilities. Without AT, there may be many tasks they simply cannot perform or will have difficulty performing. Computers, augmentative/alternative communication systems, and communication boards are just some examples of helpful AT. Visit the Family Center on Technology and Disability to learn more about which AT devices may be useful to a given student:

8.1.1.9. http://www.fctd.info

8.1.1.10. Does the student need textbooks in another format? IDEA requires that students with print disabilities be provided with accessible instructional materials. There are many disabilities that affect a student’s ability to use print materials; does your student have one such disability? If so, visit the National AIM Center, to learn where and how to get textbooks and workbooks that your student will be able to use: http://aim.cast.org/

8.1.1.11. Practice and reinforce. Does your student’s disabilities affect his or her intellectual functioning? If so, he or she will be slower to learn new things and will have difficulty applying that learning in new situations. Be concrete; give lots of hands-on opportunities for learning and practice. Give feedback immediately. Repeat the learning task in different settings.

8.1.1.12. Support related services in the classroom. Depending on the student’s disabilities, he or she may need related services to benefit from special education. Related services may include speech-language therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, or orientation and mobility services. It’s best practice to provide these services in the classroom during the natural routine of the school, although some may be provided in other settings. Work with the related services personnel, as appropriate. Learn more about the related services your student receives or may need at:

8.1.1.13. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/relatedservices/

8.1.1.14. Address behavior issues. Behavior can be affected by having disabilities, especially a combination of disabilities. If a student’s behavior is affecting his or her learning or the learning of others, IDEA requires that behavior be addressed in the IEP. Is this a problem area for your student? Learn what the law requires and effective strategies for addressing behavior issues in our Behavior Suite:

8.1.1.15. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/behavior/

8.1.1.16. A paraprofessional in your classroom? Some students with multiple disabilities will require the support of an aide or paraprofessional. If this is so for your student, it helps to know about working with paraprofessionals. We offer a Para page, which paraprofessionals may also find useful, at:

8.1.1.17. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/paras/

8.1.1.18. Encourage the student’s independence. It’s natural to want to help a student who’s struggling to do a task single-handedly, especially when you know there’s a disability involved. But it’s important for the child to develop the skills it takes to live as independently as possible, now and in the future.

8.1.1.19. When the time comes, support transition planning. IDEA requires that IEP teams and students plan ahead for the student’s transition from school to the adult world. There’s a lot to know about transition planning. When the time comes for the student to begin planning, have a look at our Transition Suite:

8.1.1.20. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/transitionadult/

8.1.2. Please follow the drop down box for ideas of technology to use to help students

8.1.2.1. Assistive Technology

8.1.2.2. Educational programming for a student with multiple disabilities will be determined by a transdisciplinary team, and should focus on developing means to allow and encourage the individual to become as active and vital a participant in daily life as possible. It is critical that all team members, professionals, family and peers are cognizant of the unique educational and psychosocial needs of the student, to avoid planning and interactions based only on the complex physical and medical difficulties that present. The rights and dignity of each individual must be paramount in all programming decisions.

8.1.2.3. Technology can be incorporated as a tool in programming in the following areas:

8.1.2.3.1. Learning:

8.1.2.4. o Programs for students with multiple disabilities often focus on early concept development, such as object permanence and cause and effect. These concepts are integral to the later development of language functions and higher cognitive skills. Switch operated technology allows the student with significant physical limitations to become an active participant in learning activities and thus enhances learning opportunities.

8.1.2.5. o A wide array of switch operated toys, as well an ever expanding range of computer software is available. Some companies offer software that will foster development of basic concepts (eg. cause and effect, responding to simple commands), using activities at interest levels appropriate for older students. One example is Teenage Switch Progressions (R.J. Cooper, Inc.) The activities on the computer screen, activated by a press of a switch, range from popping popcorn to applying makeup. These programs also offer a valuable medium for interaction with non-disabled peers.

8.1.2.6. o Most programs designed for this level of learning incorporate opportunities for development of more advanced skills as well. Many of them begin with simple cause and effect (a switch press causes activity for a pre-set time period), advance to a sustained press being required for the activity to continue, and then incorporate simple commands (eg "press the switch now"), to develop deliberate response to oral commands. The range of switch options is extensive and the particular switch chosen must suit the individual's particular physical abilities. See Section III for a further discussion of switch selection.

8.1.2.6.1. Positioning/ Mobility

8.1.2.7. o Good positioning/ handling of students with multiple disabilities is critical, both to reduce pain and prevent further physical complications, as well as to allow the individual to see, hear, reach and become engaged in persons and materials for optimal participation and learning.

8.1.2.8. o Many students will also require aids for mobility both in general as well as during Physical Education classes. Assistive devices are instrumental in meeting these needs.

8.1.2.8.1. Communication

8.1.2.9. o Most students with multiple disabilities have limited verbal communication skills. Adults or peers often make choices for students with multiple disabilities because they cannot speak. There should always be direct instruction to encourage even very physically involved students to make choices independently. Various low and high-technology Alternative and Augmentative Communication systems can be used to supplement or replace verbal communication. The range of options can be from non-tech (eg. eye-pointing to the actual object) to high- tech (eg. switch selection of choices displayed on a computer screen as they are scanned by a screen pointer). Speech Language Pathology as well as Occupational Therapy consultation is advised when decision-making is this area.

8.1.2.9.1. Environmental Control

8.1.2.10. o Students with multiple disabilities can use Environmental Control Units to exercise control over the environment. ECU's allow the individual to turn on/off lights, electrical appliances (radio, TV, etc) and battery operated devices (tape recorders, games, and so on). Another similar piece of technology is an Automated Learning Device (ALD) (Ablenet, Inc).

8.1.2.10.1. Play/Leisure/Socialization

8.1.2.11. o Technological tools for these areas may include adapted puzzles/games, toys adapted for switch use, computer assisted drawing programs, as well as computer games with specialized input and/or output devices. A Switch-Adapted Mouse (R.J. Cooper, Inc.) offers wonderful opportunities for co-operative play. A non-disabled peer moves the mouse, while the student with a disability "clicks" through a switch.

8.1.2.11.1. Sports/Recreation

8.1.2.12. o There is a range of adapted sports equipment that can assist in involving students with multiple disabilities in physical education and outdoor programming. Adapted bowling equipment, balls with sound, various supportive swings, hammocks, adapted tricycles, scooter boards and powered vehicles offer the student the opportunity to experience different positions, orientation and movement experiences that otherwise would not be available.

8.1.2.12.1. Daily Living/Personal Care

8.1.2.13. o Technology to assist the individual with multiple disabilities complete daily living tasks may include adapted eating utensils, bathroom aids, adapted clothing and dressing aids and so on.

8.1.2.14. o Many times, an individual with a Multiple Disability will always remain dependant , to some degree for personal care and daily living functions.

9. Orthopedic impairment

9.1. …means a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis), and impairments from other causes (e.g.,cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures).

9.1.1. Typical accommodations for this disability are:

9.1.1.1. Special seating arrangements to develop useful posture and movements

9.1.1.1.1. Instruction focused on development of gross and fine motor skills

9.1.1.1.2. Securing suitable augmentative communication and other assistive devices

9.1.1.1.3. Awareness of medical condition and its affect on the student (such as getting tired quickly)

9.1.2. Please read the drop down box for ideas of technology to use to help students

9.1.2.1. Assistive Technology

9.1.2.2. Due to the various levels of severity of orthopedic impairment, multiple types of assistive technology may be used. As with any student with a disability, the assistive technology would need to address a need of the student to be able to access the educational curriculum. For students with orthopedic impairments, these fall into three categories:

9.1.2.3. Devices to Access Information: These assistive technology devices focus on aiding the student to access the educational material. These devices include:

9.1.2.3.1. speech recognition software

9.1.2.3.2. screen reading software

9.1.2.3.3. augmentative and alternative communication devices (such as communication boards)

9.1.2.3.4. academic software packages for students with disabilities

9.1.2.4. Devices for Positioning and Mobility: These assistive technology devices focus on helping the student participate in educational activities. These devices include:

9.1.2.4.1. canes

9.1.2.4.2. walkers

9.1.2.4.3. crutches

9.1.2.4.4. wheelchairs

9.1.2.4.5. specialized exercise equipment

9.1.2.4.6. specialized chairs, desks, and tables for proper posture development

10. Other health impairment

10.1. …means having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that— (a) is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and (b) adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

10.1.1. Typical accommodations for this disability are:

10.1.1.1. note takers

10.1.1.1.1. recorded class sessions or meetings

10.1.1.1.2. flexible attendance requirements

10.1.1.1.3. extended exam time

10.1.1.1.4. alternative testing arrangements

10.1.1.1.5. assignments available in electronic format

10.1.1.1.6. the use of electronic mail for supervisor- and instructor-student meetings and for class or small group discussions • web-based or email distribution of course materials, lecture notes, and other documents

10.1.1.1.7. environments that minimize fatigue and injury

10.1.1.1.8. an ergonomic workstation with adjustable keyboard trays, monitor risers, glare guards, foot rests, adjustable chairs, and/or anti-fatigue matting

10.1.1.1.9. speech recognition computer input devices, ergonomic keyboards, one-handed keyboards, expanded keyboards, or miniature keyboards

10.1.1.2. When health conditions result in permanent or temporary mobility problems, accommodations for students with mobility impairments may be appropriate.

10.1.2. Please follow this link for isuggestions about what technology to use for students with this disability

10.1.3. For a case study of a mature student with Rheumatoid Arthritis.,please follow the link

11. Specific learning disability

11.1. …means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; of intellectual disability; of emotional disturbance; or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.

11.1.1. Some common accommodations that can be made for students with this delay are:

11.1.1.1. Classroom and Assignment Accommodations

11.1.1.2. assist the student in finding effective peer note-takers from the class. Alternatively, you could provide the student with a copy of your lecture notes or outline.

11.1.1.3. allow the student to tape record lectures.

11.1.1.4. allow the student additional time to complete in-class assignments, particularly writing assignments.

11.1.1.5. provide feedback and assist the student in planning the workflow of assignments. This is especially important with large writing assignments. It may be helpful to break the larger assignment into smaller components with opportunities for draft feedback.

11.1.1.6. provide assistance with proofreading written work.

11.1.1.7. Examination Accommodations

11.1.1.8. extended exam time, typically time and one half to double time.

11.1.1.9. to take exams in a room with reduced distractions.

11.1.1.10. the assistance of a reader, scribe, or word processor for exams.

11.1.1.11. the option of an oral exam.

11.1.1.12. to use spelling and grammar assistive devices for essay exams.

11.1.1.13. to use a calculator for exams.

11.1.1.14. to use scratch paper during exams.

11.1.2. Some examples of technology to help students in maths

11.1.3. Some examples of technology to help students with dyslexia.

11.1.4. For a case study about a student with Specific Learning Disability in mathematical reasoning and calculation please follow this link

11.1.5. For a case study of a child with Specific Learning Disability in the areas of basic reading, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and written expression please follow this link.

12. Speech or language impairment

12.1. …means a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

12.1.1. Typical accommodations for a student with a speech impairment may include:

12.1.1.1. Increased writing, decreased speaking tasks.

12.1.1.2. Use of a voice output computer or other speech generated technology.

12.1.1.3. Provision of individual sessions to allow the student to clarify information presented in lecture, since the student may be reluctant to speak in class.

12.1.2. Many students with speech impairments will be hesitant about participating in activities that require speaking. Even if the student has adjusted well to speech impairment, new situations may aggravate old anxieties.

12.1.2.1. Allow the student time to express him or herself so that confidence can be gained.

12.1.2.2. Accept and respond to all appropriate attempts at communication.

12.1.2.3. Resist the temptation to complete words or phrases for persons with speech impairments.

12.1.3. Pleae follow this link for tech ideas

13. Traumatic brain injury

13.1. …means an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech. The term does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma.

13.1.1. Typical accommodations for this disability are:

13.1.1.1. Classroom Accommodations:

13.1.1.1.1. Allow additional time to complete in-class assignments

13.1.1.1.2. Allow for extra or extended breaks

13.1.1.1.3. Provide student with instructor’s notes or help student obtain quality notes from other students

13.1.1.1.4. Allow student to audio record lectures for later playback

13.1.1.1.5. Provide both oral and written instructions; clarify instructions

13.1.1.1.6. For lectures, provide student with an outline or study guide when available

13.1.1.1.7. Allow use of a portable computer with spelling and grammar checks for assignments and note-taking

13.1.1.1.8. In grading work, reduce emphasis on spelling and grammatical errors unless it is the purpose of the assignment

13.1.1.1.9. Permit referencing a dictionary or thesaurus for assignments

13.1.1.1.10. Provide preferential seating at or near the front of the classroom

13.1.1.1.11. Reduce quantity of work required, in favor of quality.

13.1.1.1.12. Avoid placing student in high pressure situations (e.g., short time frames, extensive volume of work; highly competitive)

13.1.1.1.13. Exempt student from reading aloud in front of classmates because of impaired reading skills.

13.1.1.2. Test Accommodations:

13.1.1.2.1. Allow additional time to complete tests.

13.1.1.2.2. Provide for completion of tests in a quiet, individual environment with the goal of minimizing distractions.

13.1.1.2.3. Administer long examinations in a series of shorter segments with breaks allowed between sections.

13.1.1.2.4. Allow oral examinations and assist student in having responses scribed, as needed.

13.1.1.2.5. Assess knowledge using multiple-choice instead of open-ended questions.

13.1.1.2.6. Allow student to clarify and explain responses on exams (and assignments).

13.1.1.2.7. Permit student to keep a sheet with mathematic formulas for reference, unless memorizing the formulas is required.

13.1.1.2.8. Permit student’s use of a calculator.

13.1.1.2.9. Permit the student to utilize a dictionary and thesaurus in writing test responses.

13.1.1.2.10. If two exams are scheduled on the same day, allow student to reschedule one for another day.

13.1.2. Please follow this link for ideas of technology to use to help students

13.1.2.1. http://www.brainline.org/content/multimedia.php?id=3514

14. Visual impairment, including blindness

14.1. …means an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.

14.1.1. Typical accommodations for students who are blind or have low vision may include:

14.1.1.1. Use of a scribe or note taker.

14.1.1.2. Location (close to the chalkboard or screen).

14.1.1.3. Tape recorded lectures.

14.1.1.4. Taped texts.

14.1.1.5. Large print class materials.

14.1.1.6. Extended time for tests.

14.1.1.7. Alternate test format: e-format, oral, Braille, or large print.

14.1.1.8. Use of a voice or large print output computer with word processing software.

14.1.1.9. Extended time and alternate locations for examinations.

14.1.1.10. Use of a closed circuit enlargement system.

14.1.1.11. Extended time for research requirements.

14.1.1.12. Please follow the link for Tech to use with children with this disability

14.1.2. Please follow this link for ideas of technology to use to help students

15. References

15.1. Accommodations Guide for Students with Brain Injury. (2016). Brainline.org. Retrieved 15 May 2016, from http://www.brainline.org/content/2011/10/accommodations-guide-for-students-with-brain-injury.html

15.2. BRCC Disability Services Handbook: Index. (2016). Adasoutheast.org. Retrieved 11 May 2016, from http://www.adasoutheast.org/ed/abouted/blueridge/index.html#content

15.3. Categories of Disability Under IDEA | Center for Parent Information and Resources. (2016). Parentcenterhub.org. Retrieved 11 May 2016, from http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/categories/#speech

15.4. Diehl, S., Wegner, J., & Rubin, E. (2010). Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Three Case Studies. The ASHA Leader, 15(1), 14-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/leader.FTR2.15012010.14

15.5. Do2Learn: Educational Resources for Special Needs. (2016). Do2learn.com. Retrieved 13 May 2016, from http://do2learn.com/disabilities/CharacteristicsAndStrategies/DevelopmentalDelay_Strategies.html

15.6. Do2Learn: Educational Resources for Special Needs. (2016). Do2learn.com. Retrieved 15 May 2016, from http://do2learn.com/sitemap/index.htm

15.7. For Teachers. (2016). Emotional Disturbance. Retrieved 11 May 2016, from http://elementaryemotionaldisturbance.weebly.com/for-teachers.html

15.8. Health Impairments | DO-IT. (2016). Washington.edu. Retrieved 15 May 2016, from http://www.washington.edu/doit/health-impairments

15.9. Instructional strategies. (2016). Understood.org. Retrieved 10 May 2016, from https://www.understood.org/en/school-learning/partnering-with-childs-school/instructional-strategies

15.10. Tech Finder. (2016). Understood.org. Retrieved 11 May 2016, from https://www.understood.org/en/tools/tech-finder