Foundation of Education

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Foundation of Education by Mind Map: Foundation of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Vision of Education

1.1.1. Traditional

1.1.1.1. Views schools as necessary to the transmission of the traditional values of the US such as hard work, family unity, individual initiative.

1.1.2. Liberal

1.1.2.1. Stresses the and socializing functions of the school. Belief in equality of opportunity for all students

1.1.3. Progressive

1.1.3.1. Views schools as central to solving problems, essential to the development of individual potential and as an integral part of the democratic party.

1.2. Conservative

1.2.1. Accountability measures

1.2.2. Traditional curriclum

1.2.3. Return to basics

2. History of US Education

2.1. Reform

2.1.1. Public Education

2.1.2. Education for Minorites

2.1.3. Urbanization

2.2. Progressive

2.2.1. Ethical character

2.2.2. Worthy of leisure

2.2.3. Command fundamental process

3. Sociological Perspectivies

3.1. Functional Theories stresses the interdependence of the social system, how well the parts are integrated with each other. Educational reform is to create structures, programs and curricula that are technically advanced, rational, and encourage social unity. Conflict Theories Educational reform is to create structures, programs and curricula that are technically advanced, rational, and encourage social unity. Whereas functionalists emphasize cohesion, conflict theorists emphasize struggle in explaining social order Interactional Theories primarily critiques and extensions of functional and conflict perspectives of the school and society. It emphasizes the structure and process at a very general level of analysis.

3.2. Knowledge and Attitudes; researches has indicated that the more education an individual receives the more likely they are to read a newspaper, books, and take part in political and public affairs. Employment; most students believe that after graduating from college will lead to greater employment opportunities and they are right. Teachers Behavior; A teachers behavior has a huge impact on the students learning. Teachers are models for students and set the standards. All teachers affect the self esteem and the efficacy of the class with their behavior.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Curriculum is the totality of students experiences that occur in the educational process.

4.2. Role of the teacher is to analyze and discuss ideas with students in order for students to move to new levels of awareness so that that they can be transformed

4.3. Goal of Education was for teachers to encourage their students to search for truth as individuals.

4.4. Key Researchers

4.5. Plato believed that the state should play an active role in education.                 Aristotle was the first philosopher to develop a rational systematic method for testing.

4.6. Generic Notions was important means of moving individuals collectively toward achieving the good

4.7. Method of Instructions is for teachers to take an active part in their students learning. Students are to discuss, analyze and synthesize oral and written work.

5. Schools of Oraganizations

5.1. Federal consist of State Senators, House of Representatives The educational reforms passed by Congress are regulated and enforced by the federal Department of Education. The U.S. Department of Education collects data on government-run schools, evaluates their performance, suggests policy changes, and measures outcomes.  - See more at: http://cpjustice.org/public/page/content/cie_faq_levels_of_government#sthash.JpMnQwkl.dpuSt Most education policy is decided at the state and local levels. The federal government role in education is limited, but the Department of Education: • Provides federal financial aid for education and monitors those funds • Collects data on America's schools and report's findings • Focuses national attention on key educational laws and issues • Prohibits discrimination and ensures equal access to education • Works to improve teaching performance •   State consist of State Superintendent and State school board. State governments exercise primary accountability and oversight for government-run schools. Most state constitutions include basic provisions for education, giving state governments the authority to establish their own departments of education and to pass laws governing school practices. State governments often choose to delegate much of their authority to local school districts, but they can reclaim that authority   - See more at: http://cpjustice.org/public/page/content/cie_faq_levels_of_government#sthash.JpMnQwkl.dpuff Local State governments commonly delegate responsibility for the accountability and operation of government-run schools to local bodies, who decide exactly how schools will operate. In order to accomplish this, state departments of education create school districts. In some states, the geographic lines that determine counties, parishes, or boroughs also determine school districts. In most, however, school districts are drawn independently of other administrative boundaries. Each school district is governed by a school board, whose members are either elected by the public or appointed (usually by a mayor or city council). Some school districts combine the two selection methods, appointing some members while holding elections for others. Nationally, ninety-six percent of school boards are elected by a popular vote. Each school board appoints a superintendent, typically an experienced school administrator, to act as C.E.O. of all the schools in their district. Local school boards are also responsible for establishing curricula, hiring personnel, and deciding when schools should be closed, consolidated, or constructed. - See more at: http://cpjustice.org/public/page/content/cie_faq_levels_of_government#sthash.JpMnQwkl.dpuf Common District Structure 1.School Board        Elected        Represent local control 2.District Office        Superintendent 3.School Administration        Principles, Assistant Principles, and Deans 4.School Faculty        Teachers        Other Certified staff (speech pathologists, counselors, etc.) 5.School Staff        Custodians        Administrative assistants

5.2. The literacy rates among fourth grade students in America are sobering. Sixty six percent of all U.S. fourth graders scored "below proficient" on the 2013 National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) reading test, meaning that they are not reading at grade level.1 Even more alarming is the fact that among students from low-income backgrounds, 80 percent score below grade level in reading.2 Reading proficiency among middle school students isn't much better. On the 2013 NAEP reading test, about 22 percent of eighth graders scored below the "basic" level, and only 36 percent of eighth graders were at or above grade level.3 Compared to other countries, we fail in math and science. In the growing global marketplace, students will need to excel in both math and science to compete internationally as engineers, scientists, physicians, and creative entrepreneurs. Yet, in a 2012 analysis of student performance on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the U.S. placed 27th out of 34 countries in math performance and 20th in science performance.4

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Historical Curriculum Theory

6.1.1. The four different types of curriculum are humanist, social efficiency,  developmentist, and social meliorist.

6.1.2. Humanist curriculum reflects the idealist philosophy that knowledge of the traditional liberal arts is the cornerstone of education

6.1.3. Developmentalist is related to the needs and interests of the student rather than the needs of society.

6.1.4. Social meliorist theory was that the schools should change society or at least help solve its fundamental problems.

6.2. Sociological Curriculum Theory

6.2.1. The function of what is taught in schools and its relationship to the role in society.

6.2.2. Curriculum represents the codification of the knowledge that students to become competent members of society.

6.2.3. The focus is not only what is taught but why is it taught

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Educational Achievements

7.1.1. 1973 to 1986 the gaps in reading and mathematics between 13 year old African Americans and Hispanics whites narrowed.

7.1.2. Female achieve slightly higher levels in mathematics at age 9

7.1.3. Females have outperformed males in reading since 1973 and males have out performed females in mathematics and science since 1973

7.1.4. In 1975 Congress passed the Education of All Handicapped Children Law

7.1.5. In the 1980s special education pushed for the regular education initiative (REI) which called for mainstreaming children with disabilities into the regular classrooms.

7.2. Coleman Study is that schools that are less bureaucratic and more academically oriented are better for learning environment's for students. The higher the social class is correlated with higher achievements.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Sociological Explanation of unequal education achievement

8.1.1. The best and brightest individuals will rise regardless of family background

8.1.2. Vision of a just society is one where individual talent and hard work based on universal principles of evaluation.

8.1.3. Expected that schooling process will produce unequal results based on individuals differences between students not on group differences.

8.1.4. Expected that schooling process will produce unequal results based on individuals differences between students not on group differences.

8.2. School Centered Explanation

8.2.1. Economically disadvantaged students attended inferior schools

8.2.2. The argument that unequal educational performance by working class and non-white students due to genetic differences in intelligence.

8.2.3. African American children do less well in school because they adapt to their oppressed position in the class and caste structure.

8.2.4. The argument that unequal educational performance by working class and non-white students due to genetic differences in intelligence.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School based: The voucher proposal was based on if the families were funded rather than the school. This would allow for greater parental choice and participation. The voucher system would deregulate the public school system. This system would lead to increased to parental satisfaction, take out the educational bureaucracy, and public schools would be forced to improve. School-business partnership; The relationship was formed when business leaders became concerned that the school were not producing graduates necessary for revitalization of the US economy. The Walton foundation has funded millions of dollars into small schools and for teaching effectiveness. Privatization; The private education companies became involved in public education. When Edison Company took over the management of failing schools and districts. School-to-work programs; The program was extended what had been a vocational emphasis to non-college bound student. The program was designed for students to obtain necessary skill for employment. Teacher education; refers to the policies and procedures designed to equip prospective teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school and wider community. Teacher quality; the recruitment of high quality teachers in all classrooms. Teacher teaching subjects that they are qualified to teach. Teachers that have a teaching certificate in order to teacher a subject.

9.2. Societal reform; reducing nepotism within a school district's decision making process. Economic reform; improving schools district administrative and fiscal management practices. Community reform; removing threats of teacher strikes within a school district. Political reform; innovative programs within a school district, such as small schools programs and cooperative arrangements between schools and social service agencies.